Colombia

The Republic of Colombia is one of the largest nations in the American continent but is one of the least populated with only a population of 10 millions, this doesn't mean that Colombia is a insignificant nation compared to others like the United States or France, by a decade the nation has enter a golden age that started with the opening of the Panama channel by a US-Colombian company for cut the Istmo of Panama in two in 1897, and then with the discover of large oil deposits in the western part of the country in 1910 under the total control of the government.

Colombia has a rich and long history, being discovered by Amerigo Vespucci and conquered under the name of Philibert II of Sardinia in 1498, in the following years most of the coastline and the central American region was discovered and conquered for prevent any future Spanish conquest of the region, and by 1520 the Pacific was reached, in the following years a treaty with Spain will be signed for fixing the borders by natural boundaries. In  1567 Taurinia was founded by the viceroy of Sardinian America as the new administrative capital for the colony (The previous capital was Ivrea on the island of Cairi) and large groups of african slaves were brought in Colombia for work on the sugar plantations and as a labour force for the construction of new cities, Sardinia was the 4th largest export of slaves in the new world, this also attract many poor Sardinians and members of the Ligurian nobility to seek fortune in Colombia, this bring a growth of the local economy. In the next century much of the cities were restructured  following the baroque style and with the construction of many cathedrals like the Basilique of the Santissima Annunziata. During the War of the Spanish Succession the Kingdom of Sardinia sided with the Grand Alliance and was invaded from north and south by the Spanish, but thanks to the presence of professional soldiers and hit & run tactics the Spanish was defeated, the Kingdom of Sardinia gain the eastern part of the Duchy of Milan and Grenada from the Kingdom of France.

During the rest of the 18th century the Kingdom flourish under the enlightened rule of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia, by 1770 the colony have a population of 2,512,240 millions with the 10% being slaves, the American revolution of 1776 didn't have any effect on the colony itself, but in the main cities various intellectuals and students starts to talk and spread this revolutionary ideas, this movement will be further emphasized with the start of the French revolution with many intellectuals asking various right for the colony. In 1802 Victor Emmanuel I, king from just a few months instead of sign any treaty with Napoleon decide to flee in Sardinia for don't being forced to abdicate or dissolve the kingdom, during this time know as "Opening Era" see the abolition of the laws that prohibit to trade with foreign nations, the creation of two military academies, a colonial bank and many more infrastractures that help the improvement of the colony, also during this era the transfer of the Portuguese court in Rio de Janeiro increase the trades and the ties with Brazil. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 the king would move again to Turin and decide to not abolish most of the laws for the Sardinian America, also during this time a captain of the Colonial Army by the name of Simone Bolivario was start to get attention by his superiors for talk about revolutionary ideas and of follow the American example by creating a republic. 

At the Congress of Vienna the Kingdom of Sardinia receive the Duchy of Parma for strengthen his realms and for act as a buffer state between France and Lombardy-Venetia, in the following years the colonies of Spain in the new world revolt itself and declare the independence, this only increase the desire of the population to revolt against the Sardinians and secret associations know as "Carbonerie" start to be created on the model of that in Sardinia, this groups start to recruit officials of the colonial army and intellectuals in the main cities, a plan is created for the spark of various insurrections in the main cities and with the help of the local garrisons in January of 1820. At the same time in Spain the garrison of Cadiz revolt again the Spanish King and refuse to fight in the America until a constitution is given, in Sardinian America the plan proceed without any problems except the creation of royalist strongholds in Central America, Taurinia, San Giorgio and in Cartagine, in the rest of the colony most of the military join the revolutionaries but this not without some massacre like that of the garrison of the Royal Dragoons of Piedmont in the city of Nuova Genova by republican militias. 

The king immediately start to send regiments and help to the royalist forces but in March of the next year another revolt occurred, this time in the Kingdom of Sardinia at Turin where the garrison lay down their weapons and start to ask for a constitution, the revolt lead by Santorre di Santarosa and other figures of the Carbonari start to spread out in the other cities, this leave the remaining loyalist soldiers in the colony without any support and within some months they surrender to the Republican Army lead by Simone Bolivaro. But the revolt in Piedmont would be crushed with the help of the Austrians at the Battle of Novara, with this victory Victor Emmanuel I choose to abdicate in favor of Carlo Felice who decide to retreat any remain force of the Sardinian Army and Navy from the colony, leaving only there the soldiers who choose to stay and the colonial army and navy, many leaders of the revolts of 1821 in Piedmont travel to the newly independent country including Santorre di Santarosa and other important figures. 

The Republic of Colombia is declared the 20 July of 1820 by Simone Bolivaro at Taurinia in front of a massive crowd by reading the declaration of independence drafted by the Colombian Congress, Bolivaro took inspiration from the government of the United States and their structure, the new republic will have a federal and presidential structure with the divisions of the powers and the election of the lower house (Camera dei Rappresentanti) with a form of census suffrage allowed only to literate men, above the age of 25 and to who can pay a tax of voting, but were women and slaves can't vote. 

Bolivaro would lunch several expeditions in Spanish Peru for liberate the Peruvian population and for avoid any Spanish raid in Colombia, he would defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Ayachuco, in Peru, he was also helped by José de San Martín who invaded from south and liberate Cile, Argentina, Paraguay, both generals would be hailed by his citizens and give a triumphal march in Lima, Bolivaro would also liberate the territory of High Peru and in his honor the new country will be called Bolivia. 

After the end of the Liberation of Peru he would return in Colombia where he will be elected almost unanimity as first President of the Republic until his death in 1830, during his presidency he established relations with the United States, Brazilian Empire, Cile, Argentina, Mexico and with the United Kingdom, he would also improve the situation of the nation by approve the creation of the Colombian Civil Code of 1825, the end of the slave trade to Colombia, the improvement of infrastructures in the most remote parts of the country and also give a general amnesty to any loyalist remained in Colombia. 

At his death in 1830 Simone Bolivaro was declared the father of the nation and a national hero by the Congress, also his body will be buried in the Altare della Patria, a national monument dedicated to all the participants of the Colombian War of Independence and where their remains lies, this monument would also serve as Tomb of the Unknown Soldier near a century later. Bolivaro was succeeded by Santorre di Santa Rosa, who will serve as president for two terms until resign in 1844, under his presidency he would ban the slavery and declared free every slave inside Colombia, increase the size and modernize the Colombian Army and Navy, create a national educative system obligatory for every child until the age of 10 and decrease the age for voting to 25 and increase the ability to vote, also under his presidency the Republic of Colombia was recognized as a sovereign nation by King Charles Albert of Sardinia in 1842 under pressure from his government. 

Also during this years tensions escalate with Peru and Brazil for the increase number of escaped slaves that flee in Colombia for protection, at the end Colombia sign mutual treaties with Brazil and Peru for give back every runaway slaves, Colombia would also in the 40s conduct a scientific expedition in the Pacific Ocean in conjunction with the United States, the expedition would reach the port of Sydney after 4 months of collecting datas and explore islands. The first railway of Colombia, the Nuova Genova - Valenza was inaugurated in 1845 by Agostino Codazzi, this prompted the creation of an industrial economy and the enter of Colombia in an industrial era. 

In 1846 war was declared by Mexico over border dispute by general Santa Anna, Mexican troops advanced until Lake Cocibolca where they was stopped by the army and the carabinieri, in the same time the US saw the opportunity for expand his borders and for accept the requests of Texas, in less than a year the United States’s troops together with the Colombian troops reach Mexico City and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo was signed by Colombia, the United States and Mexico in the spring of 1848; Mexico would pay war reparations for both nations, cede the Honduras region to Colombia and his northern territory to the United States.  

After this victory millions of Mexicans will be integrated into the Colombian Republic with the creation of the State of Honduras, for celebrate this victory President Codazzi grant universal suffrage to any literate men above the age of 25 without necessity of pay any taxes, also this military campaign boost the Colombian morale and economy showing to the world that Colombia is a strong and developed nation with an increase of American and European investments for increase the industry and the economy, with this loans the northern coast was connected by a railway from Cartagine to Porto Croce and an other railway was created between Albalonga - Beneventura, in 1850 a census was conducted and that 5,192,097 people reside in Colombia.  

Over the next decades the Republic of Colombia would become know as the industrial giant of Latin America, with the help of the United States Colombia will become the first industrialized nation of South America and the only competitor to the American industry in the continent, also the first trade unions authorized by the government start to protect the interest of the workers and especially that of the industrial sector, the first to be created are the Unione del Proletariato Socialista Colombiano (UPSC) lead by Jacopo Solais, a socialist trade union and the Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (CGL), a catholic trade union lead by Antonio Cresta. 

In 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was formed by the King of Sardinia Victor Emmanuel II when the Italian Peninsula was united by Giuseppe Garibaldi in the Expedition of the Thousands with the exclusion of the Papal States and Veneto under Austrian control, many Colombians join the Garibaldini where they formed a Colombian Legion and serve with honor under Garibaldi, many of this fighters would later stay in Italy and serve in the Italian Army. Colombia send regards and his recognition to the new kingdom as a sovereign nation, and hoping to strengthen of the ties between Colombia and Italy. 

Always in 1861 the American Civil War started with the secession of the Confederate States of America, Colombia immediately say that they will not support a nation of slavers and start to help the United States, also many volunteers would join the Union Army for fight the rebels, included many afro-colombians incorporated into the 9th US Infantry division "Simone Bolivaro", also President Tommaso Moschera will visit Washington D.C. and Rome in 1870 for his visit to the King Victor Emmanuel II, where Colombia will sign a friendships agreement with the newly Kingdom of Italy. 

In the 70s and the 80s the Republic of Colombia would accept massive waves of immigrants from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Mexico, Peru, France and from other European countries, is estimated that between the 1870 and the 1890 were 4 millions the Italians emigrated in Colombia, many of this immigrants embrace the Colombian culture easily and in a very short time, also an increasingly number of chinese immigrants start to arrive in the ports of Beneventura and Panama.

Colombia was invited at the Congress of Berlin in 1887 as a observer nation and under the request of the United States for increased American presence, even though Colombia didn't have any colonial empire or overseas territory, the representative for Colombia was Luigi Tukory, ambassador in Germany for the republic.

In 1881 the Colombian government start the project to create a canal in the Panama region, the are supervisioned by the Department of Public Infrastructures and by the Isthmian Canal Commission lead by John Findley Wallance and Stefano Turr, the works lack any safety protocols and mostly of the workers, with chinese and mexican forces have most of the casualties, the channel was inaugurated by President of the Republic Raffaele Molina and US President William McKinley. Also during the 1881 the Department for foreign affairs manage to buy the Swedish West Indies from Sweden for 200,000 Colombian Liras and a free trade agreement between the two nations, the island became the first overseas territory of the republic, with the follow creation of a base for the navy. 


Colombia was invited at the Congress of Berlin in 1887 as a observer nation and under the request of the United States for increased American presence, even though Colombia didn't have any colonial empire or overseas territory, the representative for Colombia was Luigi Tukory, ambassador in Germany for the republic.

With the start of the American-Spanish War, Colombia will maintain his navy in alert but eventually didn't take up in any action against Spain, when the war end Spain was forced to cede the West Indies, Cuba and Puerto Rico to the United States, leaving to them only their African Colonies, Samoa, Caroline, Marianne and Palau. Spain asked at various countries and also at Colombia who gladly accepted, the Colombian-Spanish Treaty of 1899 give the Islands of Palau to Colombia for a payment of 5 millions Pesetas, also in that time Colombia occupy the Islands of Samoa, the rest of the Spanish East Indies was buyed by Germany. 

During the Boxer Rebellion in China the Republic send a expeditionary corp of 3,232 soldiers and 2 ships for rescue his citizens and protect his interest in Shanghai and in China, this award Colombia with the concession of 10 million US dollars in reparations and the permanent placement of a contingent in China. After the election of President Roosevelt and his official visit of Taurinia the Republic of Colombia and the United States of America signed the Friendship agreement of 1901, declaring a military and economic alliance between the two countries. 

In 1910 oil was discovered in the area around Lake Colombo and in other parts of the country, this bring to the creation of the Agenzia Petrolifera Nazionale Colombiana for nazionalize most of the deposits and put them under the direct control of the government, this bring an enormous revenue and the economy of the country skyrocket like never before had done before, with also a general increase of wages and access for many poor Colombians to consumer or mass produced goods. Also the discovery of oil attract many foreign companies like the Shell or the Standard Oil, who buy most of the remain deposits.



At the outbreak of WW2 Colombia will enforce a policy of armed neutrality against the unrestricted submarine warfare of the German Navy, and by supplying oil barrels, selling industrial equipments and other help to France, the United Kingdom and the Entente, this infuriated Germany and Austria-Hungary but they can't do nothing for now. In 1915 the RMS Lusitania was sunk by German U-boats, the ship was carrying American and Colombian passengers and this increase the anti german hatrage not only on Germany but also in the German immigrants in Colombia and the United State, in 1917 the foreign minister of the German Empire send a telegram to Mexico asking to side with the Central Powers and if they did they would receive Southeast US and Central America aside Panama. This outrage the two countries who declared war on the Central Powers in April of 1917, Colombia and the United States will start to send troops in Italy and in Western Europe. 

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