/lit/ Philosophy Project 1.2

Version 1.2 Draft under construction!


Sections that DIVIDE will be in RED and bold

Purple is special section or something that requires a lot of attention and should be read carefully! 

Green and bold is works/words not in English

>Meme arrows, italics and highlighted green are used for quoting

Blue text in bold are thinkers we cover in this guide, also blue text will be given when a thinker is first mentioned

Titles of works will be in italics when referred to in normal text



1.Read the preface and Introduction, understand what it’s for (pedagogy)

2.Spend 5 minutes SKIMMING through the actual reading manual (go to where it says THIS IS WHERE THE GUIDE ACTUALLY STARTS). You don’t need to understand or know anything in the actual guide yet.

3. Gasp in horror at the amount of philosophical thought

4.Learn the history of philosophy and basic concepts using the books and links provided in the introduction. MAKE SURE YOU REALLY DO LEARN IT!

5.Go back to THIS IS WHERE THE GUIDE ACTUALLY STARTS and start with the Greeks!

6.After starting with the Greeks discuss on /lit/ to develop your own interests in the field of philosophy for example Phil of Mind.



If you have good knowledge on them please suggest large edits!!

If there are missing philosophers please scroll down to last pages of this doc and add them


For index of contents 


A clarification for the already-knowledgeable, newfags please read too!

This was a project I conjured up with some help of anons during development, a comprehensive guide to Western Philosophy. The Preface aims to clarify to already philosophically knowledgeable people on the purpose of this guide and the philosophically uninitiated on the path of knowledge and wisdom. The guide is not a detailed explanation of the Philosopher and their ideas (and definitely not a replacement). You get that by reading them, for an overview of Philosophy check the Introduction but this is a commentary/guide on what to texts to read, who to read, and Translations/Editions to acquire.

Why make another guide? We already have tons!

They usually jumble the required reading order or present horrible/inferior translations like this guide https://warosu.org/lit/thread/S6360534#p6360560  or miss important works of philosophers. Even though the one above is better than most guides it misses critical people like FUCKING HAS LACAN BUT NO FREUD or has horrible translations given!

Will this guide shut down philosophy on /lit/ due to explaining everything?

This guide only contains a sentence or a really short paragraph on a philosopher, so no. I actually hope this guide will enrich the already well established discussion into something more coherent.


Who should read this guide?

The people I had in mind when writing those who wanted to study philosophy seriously. I do not mean academically but as a very serious hobby at the very least.This guide is not for hacks, pseudo-intellectuals or dilettantes who want to impress women or something of the like.

Is this guide aimed to replace any real institutions of education?


How do I read this guide?:

It’s optimised in the best way to read for pedagogical purposes, no bullshit on “but but it’s not historical!!” Fuck off does this guide look like a chronological History of Western Philosophy to you?

On bias

I am a Marxist and an atheist, my main interests in philosophy are Poststructuralism, Structuralism, Critical Theory, Lacanian psychoanalysis, Schelling, Schopenhauer and Philosophy of Music (so basically Aesthetics). Having admitted these possible vectors of bias of course does not absolve me of any mistakes due to bias in this guide.

Since you are a Marxist will you cover Marx?

Yes for a few reasons. First off I think it is fair to say /lit/ has a fair amount of Leftists (I mean Leftists in general and not Marxists). Second of all, Marx has a very large influence on Continental thinkers and /lit/ loves Continental thinkers (Also there are some Analytic thinkers influenced by Marx too!). Three, if you're a right-winger or a liberal why not read it to critique it? Four, One can just read Marx as an materialist critique of Hegel’s metaphysics perhaps?

You missed XXX author! How dare you!

I will be covering philosophers who have had a large influence and not your obscure favourite blogger. I will try to be unbiased as possible in my coverage and cover influential philosophers regardless of my own personal opinion about them.

You missed X work of Y

I will cover the main works of philosophers and not something they wrote in an obscure journal. I do not omit works due ignorance but due to this following reason, this guide will be comprehensive but not overwhelming to an initiate.

On the cost of the books

Highly expensive books will only be opted optional and some cheaper alternatives of works will be presented, if you read the whole canon properly it will not be cheap, when buying 2nd hand pick ones with UNMARKED INTERIORS!























“Collected works” & “Essential works” editions vs multiple individual editions

I have chosen translations and scholarly support over cheaper collected works. “Collected works editions and “Essential works” editions will usually only be presented if they have the best support apparatus. It is also important to check the contents before buying collected works just in case you don’t buy overlapping texts. You can check using Amazon preview and Google books..

Regarding on presenting editions of works in the original language:

I will deem if it’s necessary to also present editions of philosophers works in their original language for further reading material.

Further note on translations: 

I may point to editions in their original language for further reading, these aren’t exactly necessary but serve the purpose of better understanding the text. I also pick literal translations over loose ones. I am also aware as new editions of works come out this list may become outdated, as of writing I provide the best and latest editions.


Specifically for the newfags of philosophy, when you finish this you will have a good grasp of the history Philosophy from the Greeks to Nietzsche at the very least and early Analytic & Continental history.

What's Analytic and Continental philosophy mentioned in the preface?

To put it in simple words there was a rupture between two groups of philosophers who had different views on methodology and what philosophy should be in the early 20th Century. The break began with Gottlob Frege, G.E. Moore, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein on the Analytic side; Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger on the Continental side. https://philosophynow.org/issues/74/Analytic_versus_Continental_Philosophy



Also check out the very last page of this guide.

Do I need to read everyone and everything on this list?

It is your decision on what to read, but there are philosophers that you will need to read regardless if you like them or not to understand Western philosophy (like Kant). As you develop certain philosophical interests you will find out what you want to read. For example I developed an interest in Philosophy of Music and thus I will read Philosophy of Music.

How long will it take to read all of this? How do I read a philosophical text?

Years of course, I mean you really are a /lit/ patrician who’s willing to spend years reading and also read for the virtue of reading right? With regards to how to read: read slowly, take notes, and underline passages of interest. 

Reading order

Reading order is very important. Putting it in very naive terms philosophers affirm, negate or transform a previous philosopher’s ideas. You will not understand Aristotle if you do not read Plato first for example.


Stick to the stuff in the introduction okay? Later on you will find out your specific interests may choose to specialise in a specific field of philosophy.

Where the fuck to buy all these books?

I mostly buy most of the books on Amazon but seriously just search the ISBN online. Or download them off Russian sites like libgen. Also google PDFs.

Should I read the works in their original languages? 

If you can fluently then yes you will benefit a lot, not necessary but highly recommended.

Should I ditch a thinker because I can’t read them in their original language?

No, this is where good scholarly translations come into play. Jokes on you if there's no translation

Basic terminology

Philosophy has it's own terminology to precisely explicate ideas, concepts and so and so on which you need to be familiar with, some basic terms are listed below.

Concentrate on the five fields of philosophy shown in yellow first and then check out these words below. Use the resources below to find out the meaning. 

Ignore the subsections on Logic for now unless you somehow feel confident

(Political Philosophy)         Logos        Empiricism            Arete          Rationalism        Arche

(Socratic dialogue)               Idealism     Materialism         Teleology                   Physis         a-priori    a-posteriori      being        Nous            subject             Dialectic      essence      form     

Encyclopedias, where you search stuff!:

Wikipedia of course

 But I wouldn't go to wikipedia first as it is not scholarly edited by professionals. Only good for specific information like biographical information or something obscure.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, plato.stanford.edu

Online Encyclopedia edited and written by Academics, highly recommended.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy iep.utm.edu

Another highly recommended Encyclopedia, also edited and written by Academics.

Philosophy Basics philosophybasics.com

I included this one because of the laymen language used and explains topics much more briefly, the other two wikis are a lot better though but here it is.

Lectures and talks on basics of philosophy:

Rick Roderick rickroderick.org

Some guy who was with the The Teaching Company, covers broad range of topics and philosophers, he even reaches up to 20th century thinkers like Derrida!

Bryan Magee's The great philosophers TV series (1987) *


Bryan Magee in discussion with famous philosophers and scholars like Searle, Marcuse, Ayer etc in a 45 minute tv program about the history of Western Philosophy.

NOTE: The link above above includes some parts of the TV series Men of Ideas also hosted by Bryan Magee but I am unable to find the full version of Men of Ideas online, anyways heres the imdb pages:



Gregory B. Sadler lectures youtube.com/channel/UCEtxsMx4qsoitFwjBdLU_gA

Some professor decided to upload some of his lectures to youtube, haven't watched much of his videos but his introductory videos are fine. There's even a lecture where he has a lecture with freshmen where he explains the philosophical terms listed above.

Partially Examined life partiallyexaminedlife.com

A philosophy podcast that's not pleb at all (Keep reading to the purple text below for more info)

Historyofphilosophy    http://www.historyofphilosophy.net/

Focuses on lesser known philosophers, without any gaps.

Books on the History of Western Philosophy:

These books below does a sweeping of the history of philosophy, a good overview on what’s happened in the history of philosophy. You don't have to read them all but merely pick one. RECOMMENDED TO READ ONE BEFORE STARTING THE GREEKS! Don’t read Bertrand Russell’s one, it’s biased.

Frederick Copleston 's History of Philosophy (1946–75)

A huge 11 volume covering from the presocratics to early Analytic/Continental philosophy, note that the author is a Jesuit priest and may have some thomistic biases.

Bryan Magee's The Story of Philosophy ISBN: 078947994X

Bryan Magee is at it again! This is a short 240 page book using laymen language! Enough said.

Will Durant's The Story of Philosophy (1924 with a revised second edition released in 1933 and single volume Hardcover 1926)

The oldest (but not the worst!), although not a philosopher in the proper Will Durant has written a comprehensive multi volume book from the Greeks to Nietzsche. He also has written an 11 volume set on history "The Story of Civilization" with his wife Ariel (Unfortunately they both died before getting past Napoleon). There are also audio recordings floating around on the internet of both books.

A New History of Western Philosophy ISBN: 0199656495 

Suggested by anon, a very new book by a well acclaimed scholar Anthony Kenny.


List of youtube channels or websites and specific people to avoid

1.Philosophy Tube (YT channel)



4.Alain De Botton and his popular YT channel and website “School of Life”

The reason being a very important one, the level of philosophic depth and seriousness

and real pedagogical potential of these listed would be commonly referred to as “pop philosophy”. They talk about philosophy (specifically philosophers that would generate page views) but water it down so much (to 5 minute videos) it’s not worth your time, you are actually better off finding some obscure channel who doesn’t bow down to any superego injunctions to make everything somewhat entertaining. The last two are just degenerate. Just avoid any channel claiming that philosophy will make your life better because that’s what these people and youtube channels sell pop philosophy as. Not saying philosophy couldn’t improve your life but it’s a red flag you should be keen on the rare chance philosophy springs up in the public discourse


I shall begin by stating that there are many translations of the same work and it is KEY to having the right translation, a horribly compiled edition or translation can have you completely misunderstand a philosopher! Works in original languages are also cheaper to buy.

On generic secondary literature series:

There are many generic philosophy series of secondary /lit/ such as books in the Cambridge/Oxford/Blackwell/Routledge Companion series. Frankly these were probably made to sell and the quality varies by what it’s topic is about. Only buy the ones which contain essays by reputable scholars. This shall be reflected in this guide.

A good translation has:

1. Unabridged text

2. An introductory essay by the translator and editor

3. Footnotes and annotations explaining philosophical-historical background of text (so you have a better understanding) and translation decisions explained (text explaining translation decisions are very important!)

Publishers, a quick guide on commonly found publishers of philosophy

Like literature there are some good, okay and shit publishers:

Best (in no order):

Loeb Classical Library




SUNY Press (State University of New York)


Mid-top tier:

Other universities






Although expensive, Loeb is the top tier place for classical texts. The translations are quite literal and scholarly and has the original language AND the english translation in the same volume (Original on left page and translation on the right).

Hackett, Oxford, Cambridge and SUNY press are all specialist publishers belonging to major higher education institutions and have done impressive editions of major philosophical works. Editions of works compiled by these publishers are used in scholarly and academic citations regularly.


This isn't some irrational hatred of Penguin but merely the fact that Penguin serves to provide cheap editions of literature in general (not a specialist in philosophy). The publishers mentioned above publish editions by scholars who have spent years and years gathering and compiling information before publishing their work. So don't buy from Penguin unless given so in this guide. Yes Penguin is that bad compared to the other publishers.

*Unfortunately this programme contains Peter Singer talking about Hegel and Marx, Peter Singer is an Ethicist and not a Hegelian or Marxist. I would skip this talk and find something else.


Ancient era, starting with the Greeks:

Starting with the greeks should be taken as a meme and at the same time seriously, the Western philosophical tradition traces all the way back to the Ancient greeks so seriously start with the greeks. NO EXCUSES! IN UNIVERSITY THEY START WITH THE GREEKS! (Also please make sure you understand all the preliminary stuff before reading any further)

Space left intentionally blank

You have probably seen this  around /lit/* a lot of the time but I would like to discuss this picture below in order to explain some points on how this image is related to this guide and to point out its shortcomings. Remember to follow the lines in the image and read in order!

For more information watch these lectures:


PROBLEMS, on the image.

What to read in the Image

It is quite right to start off with learning the history and mythology of Ancient Greece so we have that covered but I would argue that one only needs to read Mythology, The Iliad, The Odyssey and The Histories before moving on to reading actual philosophic texts of The First Philosophers: The Presocratics and the Sophists & the complete works of Plato and Aristotle for the purpose of this guide (Philosophy) but I am not stating philosophers do not or should not read other literature (In Continental philosophy at least there is a lot of literature involved) . But I am imagining some hardcore Geeky Greeky Greek /lit/ patricians ready to rail against me for this decision and I thus will only posit this as a meaningless suggestion.

But as a meaningless suggestion to only read these I shall give you only the relevant ISBNs of this meaningless suggestion:

Mythology: 0446574759

The First Philosophers The Presocratics and the Sophists: 019953909X

Plato Complete Works: 0872203492

Complete Works of Aristotle Vol 1: 069101650X

Complete Works of Aristotle Vol 2: 0691016518

No one is stopping you from reading all of the books in the image!

Various other helpful items









Or anything by Leo Strauss, Seth Bernadete or Alan Bloom

There is also a fun biographical and philosophical text of Greek philosophers by Diogenes Laertius The Lives of Eminent Philosophers published by Loeb** in two volumes. Also has a nice treatise on Epicureanism in Book 10 of Volume 2.

Are they the right editions?

Regarding the editions on the presocratics, Plato and Aristotle they are the best editions for the newcomer (especially Plato and Aristotle). Both complete works are done by the best scholars of Plato and Aristotle spanning thousands of pages and are definitely worth price and have no replacements! The introductions of both Complete works is very lengthy and explains in great detail. However if you even want to go into more in-depth into either the Presocratics, Plato or Aristotle I recommend the following.


Various translations and commentaries of presocratic texts:

Due to the fragmented nature of the texts it is very good to get the right translation and commentary of the presocratics. An translation and commentary series I recommend is the Phoenix Presocratics series which covers Anaxagoras, Xenophanes, Heraclitus, Parmenides and Democritus.

Also here’s some Misc stuff

Heraclitus commentaries ISBN:





Superior Parmenides book


2Scholarly4you two volume Presocratics alternative (seriously scholarly)


Scholarly Editions of Plato and Aristotle

These really aren’t needed but I thought I chuck this in for the hardcore Greek fans of /lit/,

Loeb Classics has Greek Editions of Plato and Aristotle (With english translations on the right-hand pages). These editions are expensive and really this is not essential reading(I myself do not have these!).

The real Socrates?

Little is known there are surviving non-Platonic Socratic dialogues from Xenophon a soldier and historian which are compiled by Loeb: 067499695X



You may not understand the presocratics fully the first time you read them and neither do you need to. Understanding the presocratics is a retroactive process in whereby as you read more and more later philosophers you understand more about the Presocratics in retrospect. The main reason to start off with the presocratics is to understand that Socrates changed the Philosophic discourse from talk about the ?ρχ? (Arche) and φ?σι? (Physis) to ?ρετ? (Arete). Various Philosophers deal (a prominent example would be Heidegger) with the presocratics later on in the history of Western Philosophy.


Plato is divided into an early, middle and late period. Ordering of the texts within these periods is constantly debated by scholars as it is sometimes not very clear in the text. (There are exceptions) 

Early dialogue is very easy and a great way for beginners to learn philosophy. One should start with the Trial of Socrates.


Of course some may switch Euthyphro and Apology around for pedagogical purposes, but this arrangement is a preferential chronological one of mine.

I found this excellent archived post****

>Start with the Apology; it's the key to the rest of the dialogues, and almost all of them make some reference to some aspect of the Apology. Keep in mind that it's a work of philosophy, and not a historic account, and you'll be good to go.

After that, it's really up to you, since there a couple of ways to order those dialogues:

1) By *seeming* difficulty: Apology, Euthyphro, Crito, the Symposium, Phaedo, Republic, Parmenides. This is helpful if you're really just looking to dip into Plato to see what's there.

2) "Developmental" order: (roughly the same order as above). This might be an indication of what order the dialogues were written, though there's really no good way to say whether Plato's thought really actually develops according to the three basic periods some scholars say his basic approaches would fit within; Republic and Phaedo both have different accounts of the soul but are both "Middle" period dialogues; no dialogue contains exactly the same views concerning the Forms, regardless of period; Socrates almost always uses question-and-answer modes at some point or another, regardless of whether one is to take him as Plato's strict mouthpiece.

3) "Dramatic" dating: Parmenides, Republic, Symposium, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo. This approach would be the most rewarding for a philosophy student who's already read these dialogues before, and wants to see how Plato wants to present Socrates as a whole to us. Very hard to read in this order, but one gets to see relations that would otherwise be missed.

Some other dialogues that might go well with those would be:

Theaetetus, Sophist, Statesman (all of which relate to Parmenides and the four dialogues that take place around Socrates' trial and execution).

Gorgias and Phaedrus: Both deal with rhetoric, but the Gorgias is connected to the Republic by the concern with Justice, and the Phaedrus to the Symposium by the concern with Love.

Cratylus: Relates to the Euthyphro and the dialogues at the end of Socrates' life in general. It's about language, and it's one of Plato's funniest dialogues.

Maybe Timaeus as well, which alludes to the Republic. Other than that, the rest are great from a certain philosophic perspective, but maybe not so essential to someone who'd just like familiarity.

One should also advise:

One should not read dialogues that are of doubtful authenticity, the exception being for fun.

Read Meno before the Republic.

The Underrated dialogue Laws should be read after the Republic.

Timaeus should be read especially, very important in understanding Platonic cosmology and introduces the Platonic demiurge.


The ordering of Aristotle is much simpler as there are few texts in the Corpus Aristotellicum.

In regards to what Aristotle thought about Aesthetics one should read On Poetry.

For Ethics and Political theory one should read Ethics & Politics.

For his Metaphysics & Logic one should read The Organon, Physics, On the Soul & Metaphysics.

For his work on Rhetoric check out Rhetoric.

One should go Ethics>Politics>On Poetry>The Organon>Physics>On the Soul>Metaphysics>Rhetoric, from his easier works to his harder works.

Regarding the Organon, it is THE foundational text in Logic and should without a doubt be read. It comprises of (in order):


On Interpretation

Prior Analytics

Posterior Analytics


Sophistical Refutations

Reading these dry texts on Logic may be difficult and boring but it is necessary. Just read it slowly.

Also watch this video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=McdM1zQfiv8

Missing Philosophers from above image:

If you want to learn about the Ancient’s take on Ethics or Materialism keep reading this or if not skip to Medieval Philosophy

The start with the greeks image is missing Epicureanism and Stoicism. here’s their works


Read these two in the following order, also knowing Democritus would help with explaining Epicurus’s Metaphysics.

The Essential Epicurus (Great Books in Philosophy) ISBN: 0879758104 – Most extensive English translation of Epicurus fragments

On the Nature of Things ISBN: 9780674992009 – Nice Poem explaining Epicurean philosophy ALTERNATE TRANSLATION:0872205878

Also In volume 2 of the already mentioned Lives of Eminent Philosophers theres is a Lengthy treatise on Epicurus 0674992040

Epicurea ISBN: 110801626X – most extensive compilation of text regarding Epicureanism (Warning not in English! For people who truly want to achieve a state of ?ταραξ?α)

Stoics, read in following order:

Dialogues and essays ISBN : 0199552401 – or try 0226748421

The Discourses of Epictetus – The Handbook – Fragments ISBN: 0460873121*******

Meditations ISBN 048629823X

*There is another image like this one except it is vastly inferior in the purpose of guiding someone new to the greeks. It can be viewed here:


Unfortunately this image begins with three Penguin translations and pressures the follower into reading the Republic only reading Plato’s Apology before hand. Next it jumps right into Aristotle’s difficult Metaphysics without instructing the reader to AT LEAST read Aristotle’s Physics (After All Metaphysics literally means “After Physics”) and Organon (Aristotle's work on Logic). Finally it omits all the other great works they wrote (like Parmenides, On Poetry, Symposium etc) and paints both of the philosophers as mere Metaphysicians.

**hup.harvard.edu/collection.php?cpk=1031 They also have digital versions.


******Texts can also be found Online http://www.epicurus.info/

******* There is also an Loeb edition of Epictetus work for patricians


I have added this section for people interested in this esoteric part of philosophy, Neoplatonism has a immense influence on Christianity, Western Mysticism, Gnosticism and Medieval philosophy. If you are not interested in Neoplatonism skip this section. Here I highly recommend Loeb over any other edition as these texts are obscure! Note that this part of the guide is especially expensive

Note that you should of read Aristotle.

Reading Neoplatonism: Non-discursive Thinking in the Texts of Plotinus, Proclus, and Damascius: 0521039428

Neoplatonism (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872202879

Neoplatonism (Ancient Philosophies) ISBN:  0520258606

Your choice…


A middle Platonist, unfortunately like with other ancient figures we don’t have too much of his extant work, what we have of his philosophical work is Moralia. One can buy the Loeb Edition in 10 volumes or 1481079883


Secondary literature

Nature, Contemplation, and the One ISBN: 094391454X

There are a lot of Plotinus introductions and this is the best one (because I said so)

Plotinus the Platonist: A Comparative Account of Plato and Plotinus' Metaphysics

ISBN: 1472575210

Literally the only book on this very important topic, suck a dick.

Also https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLWZrpIHt9H2JRVWNGrsm8o7UsP36NutlM

The "Enneads" of Plotinus: A Commentary, Volume 1 ISBN: 069115421X

THE BEST COMMENTARY EVER ON THE ENNEADS FULL STOP. Unfortunately only volume one has been published at the time of writing



Plotinus: The Enneads (LP Classic Reprint Series) ISBN: 0943914558

One can buy this older but cheaper and more poetic translation or the Loeb edition. I highly recommend the Loeb edition as A.H Armstrong gives a far superior scholarly translation with lots of notes. Avoid the degenerate abridged Penguin edition.


Proclus: An Introduction ISBN: 0521761484

Literally the only introduction available, suck a dick.

Proclus Works (READ IN ORDER!!!)

At the time of writing Proclus commentary on Republic was still untranslated.

Note that there is not much scholarly work done on Proclus, most translations are done by Thomas Taylor (first guy to translate the complete works of Aristotle and of Plato) which are good but old.

The Elements of Theology: A Revised Text with Translation, Introduction, and Commentary (Clarendon Paperbacks) ISBN: 0198140975

A summa of Proclus Neoplatonism, read read read first!

Free older translation http://www.esotericarchives.com/proclus/metaelem.htm


This work On The Theology of Plato should be read alongside Proclus commentaries on Parmenides and Timaeus below, print ISBN 1898910073


Again Thomas Taylor, print ISBN: 1475067232

Note that there is a newer translation by Cambridge but it’s really expensive. (buy from Amazon, it’s cheaper!)



I’ve uploaded the Parmenides commentary for you guys, print ISBN 0691020892 

Further Reading on Proclus


Proclus commentary on Cratylus

Proclus: A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements ISBN: 0691020906

Basically Neoplatonic philosophy of Mathematics, free older translation below


One can also browse here for free translations on other Neoplatonic works


Kebab (Middle Eastern) Philosophy

Since no one on /lit/ is really knowledgeable in this section (not usually known outside of specialists) not much will be here but I was lucky enough to get a reply by “Medieval anon” on this

Medieval Anon here. Most of the great Islamic Philosophers are included in the Bosely and Tweedale compilation I mentioned (ISBN:1551117150 ) . I know a bit about them, though I have not read Al-Farabi.


Avicenna-The Book of Healing

Averroes- The Incoherence of the Incoherence.

Al-Ghazali- The Incoherence of the Philosophers.

For more mystical thought

Sohrevardi- The Book of Radiance.

Medieval Anon here. A few things to add.

1. Medieval Philosophy: An historical and philosophical introduction, by John Marenbon is a fantastic overview of the period. I'm going through it at the moment and I am learning allot.

2. For Farabi, given Marenbon's take on him I would suggest the " Attainment of Happiness".

But myself suggest you investigate this section if you hate/love Aristotle as this is very much centered on Aristotle’s Logic and Metaphysics (Though there is a little bit of Neoplatonism).

Medieval Philosophy lite:

For most people you should just read just ST Augustine and ST Aquinas, but you can look below for an expanded Medieval reading list. Yes you have to read this even if you're an Atheist. No Fedora tipping!

ST Augustine

ST Augustine is most famous for his two works, Confessions and City of God but he also wrote works such as On the Trinity and On the free Choice Of The Will. Loeb also has scholarly versions of ST Augustine.

The Confessions, Revised (The Works of Saint Augustine: A Translation for the 21st Century, Vol. 1) ISBN: 1565481542

Confessions (Oxford World's Classics) ISBN: 0199537828

Both are excellent translations of Confessions, take your pick.

Augustine: The City of God against the Pagans (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) ISBN: 0521468434

Don’t buy the much more popular one by Marcus Dods, Christfags don’t know that Cambridge publishing exists. The Marcus Dods translation is over 100 years old.

ST Aquinas

Aquinas (A Beginner's Guide) ISBN: 1851686908

By Thomist/Christian Analytic Philosopher Edward Feser

Aquinas's Shorter Summa: Saint Thomas's Own Concise Version of His Summa Theologica ISBN: 1928832431

Title says all, a concise version of the Summa written by Aquinas himself. The book’s original name is The Compendium of Theology (editor renamed it). Older free translation here


If you are willing to read the whole thing because you are a diehard Catholic or whatever buy one with a good Critical Apparatus. If you look at Amazon reviews check the one star reviews first.

Expanded Medieval list.

Want more Medieval Phil? HERE!

Early Medieval Philosophy



Pre-Aristotelian revival



Aristotelian revival


Duns Scotus

Early Empiricism and Post-The Condemnations of 1277

William of Ockham

John Buridan

Why study this period in depth? Well Medieval anon gives an answer!

14th century Scholastics like Ockham and Buridan were incredibly important for starting up empiricism and breaking away from the old Aristotelian way, and the reconciliation of rationality and faith were seriously challenged by them. The foundations of modern science starts here as well with figures like Roger Grosseteste, this period is unfortunately very obscure to most people. But the major intellectual shift and the birth of science already began at this point, and often thinkers like Galileo were applying allot of what was first sketched out here.

Yes, it's also more important than it is given credit for [regarding obscurity]. Malebranche and Leibniz both carried on allot of Medieval ideas, whether it be Malebranche's divine illuminationism or Leibniz' belief in the necessity of substances of some sort, the whole rationalist side of the early modern period were not so far away from Medieval Philosophers like Thomas and Scotus, and the empiricists were not so far away from Ockham and Buridan. 

Hell Descartes' "cogito ergo sum" was stolen from an inference made by Augustine in his "dubito ergo sum" argument against the skeptics, and that argument is usually cited as one of the pillars of the early modern period. 

Funny story, when Descartes was confronted about ripping off Augustine ( he went to a Jesuit school, no was going to buy that he never read Augustine) he simply claimed that once one had thought of an idea that it was then their idea, so really he only shared the idea with Augustine. Suarez too was very important for the early moderns and he was a Scholastic. So for the sake of having good historical background for the Early Modern period, knowledge of Medieval Philosophy and the rise of skepticism in the Renaissance is quite vital in my opinion. Along with that modern Analytic philosophy has the same focus on formal logic and language that Medieval Philosophy did,and many currently utilized concepts in Analytic Philosophy are Medieval in origin, such as Dun Scotus' Haecceity and Abelard's De Re and De Dicto distinction.

The obvious one for Boethius is The Consolation of Philosophy, where he discusses fatalism/free will in a Theological context.

For Anselm his best known works are the Monologion and the Proslogion. In the later comes the Ontological Proof of God's existence.

For Abelard "Ethics" also known as "Know Yourself" and "The Letters of Abelard and Heloise." would be a nice supplement. Heloise, was secretly betrothed to Abelard until they were discovered and Heloise' uncle hired a gang of thugs to castrate Abelard, she was perhaps the first great female Philosopher and it shows in her letters to Abelard."The Glosses of Peter Abailard on Porphyry" has good discussion of Abelard's account of why Universals are only linguistic devices.

For John Duns Scotus The Ordinatio is considered his most important work, but for something shorter Tractatus de Primo Principio (Treatise on the First Principle) would be best.

For Ockham and Buridan I'll have to get back to you, since I always study them in a fragmented manner. Anything who doesn't like Scotus ought to check out Ockham's critique of the Ordinatio.

One suggestion I would have for texts is that people buy " Basic Issues in Medieval Philosophy" 2nd edition, by Bosley and Tweedale. I has selections from most of the really important topics in the period, and has sections of Aristotle necessary to understand them. Most importantly it has a large index that clarifies all the period specific terminology at work, and there is quite a bit in Medieval Philosophy. I don't see anyone having a good understanding of Medieval texts without understanding what is meant by "Instants of Nature", " Divided and Composite senses" or " Perfection" and Aristotelian terminology like "act vs potency" " The four causes" and ect, 12 pages of the book covers terminology and they make note in the texts when you should be going back and looking for a definition of the terms. This book also includes strong background pieces for every included issue that are very accessible. 


Expanded Western Medieval list, Western Christian Mysticism edition:

Want to read 2mystical4you texts? Negative Theology? Want to read texts that inspire Gnosis? Read this! Note that these aren’t a complete list of Christian mystics but a selection (I have for example skipped Hermes Trismegistus and have not dealt with Eastern Orthodox Mysticism) as these thinkers have influences on later philosophers like Heidegger, Schelling and Hegel This section is basically the Continental equivalent of the above section (though notably Deleuze & Guattari borrow  Haecceity from Duns Scotus). Note that one should be well versed in Plotinus and Proclus (Neoplatonism) before attempting to study this section.

A leading scholar in this field is Bernard McGinn. Below I shall list some of his books but you should check him out yourself.

The Foundations of Mysticism: Origins to the Fifth Century (The Presence of God: A History of Western Christian Mysticism, Vol. 1)

This book explains the the origins of Christian Mysticism and deals with it’s Neoplatonic, Hermetic and Jewish influences. Part of a larger series by a leading scholar this is a great place to start!


Toptier book on early Negative Theology (What god is not) which covers exactly what we are covering in this section, print ISBN 1620328623


The guy who snuck Neoplatonism into Christianity basically. 1 sentence simplification!

Theophany: The Neoplatonic Philosophy of Dionysius the Areopagite (Suny Series in Ancient Greek Philosophy) ISBN: 0791471128

Secondary lit explaining the Neoplatonic background of Dionysius and how he used it, especially Plotinus and Proclus.

Pseudo-Dionysius: The Complete Works (Classics of Western Spirituality) ISBN: 0809128381

There is a classical older translation here, for a older free translation here.



>More particularly we would shortly deal with the chief representatives of this philosophy. Scholastic philosophy is considered to begin with John Scotus Erigena who flourished about the year 860, and who must not be confused with the Duns Scotus of a later date. We do not quite know whether he belonged to Ireland or to Scotland, for Scotus points to Scotland, and Erigena to Ireland. With him true philosophy first begins, and his philosophy in the main coincides with the idealism of the Neo-Platonists. – Hegel, Lectures on History of Philosophy Part 2

According to Hegel it is this obscure Neoplatonist scholastic that real (Modern?) philosophy begins (not Descartes). Could it be true?

The Philosophy of John Scottus Eriugena: A Study of Idealism in the Middle Ages ISBN: 0521892821

>Moran, himself a Professional Philosopher, explains Eriugena's system and influences in good detail, and was one of the reasons I decided to study Philosophy. – Anon

This nice little book discusses Erigena and his philosophy also with his influence on later philosophers (like Hegel and Schelling)

Periphyseon on the Division of Nature ISBN: 1610976304

Unfortunately this is abridged (it’s still 406 pages long and better than nothing). The unabridged one (0884021734) is out of print, gotta wait for a Dublin Advanced Institute edition.

Meister Eckhart

With such a cool name what could go wrong from reading him? Some philosophers like John D. Caputo argue that Heidegger’s Gelassenheit was influenced by Eckhart. But read regardless of the previous sentence if you like this section.

The Mystical Thought of Meister Eckhart: The Man from Whom God Hid Nothing ISBN: 0824519965

Wandering Joy: Meister Eckhart's Mystical Philosophy ISBN: 0970109717

Expect dry Academic prose (which I like), especially the one one on the right. Great books though.

The Complete Mystical Works of Meister Eckhart ISBN: 0824525175

There are a lot of abridged editions because christfags who read this kind of text complain about “needing just a dose” They are illiterate and don’t want to read. But anyways this complete edition has a nice introduction by McGinn.


On the order of reading:

No matter what you do you should read Descartes first, the order goes like this:

Rationalists: Descartes>Spinoza>Leibniz

Empiricists: Locke>Berkeley>Hume


Quick secondary /lit/







Continental Philosophy leaning /lit/ (Challenging!)




Three Volume edition of Descartes including Correspondence

Vol 1. ISBN: 052128807X

Vol 2. ISBN: 0521288088

Vol 3. ISBN: 0521423503


Also have this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tfk4aDm95R


Quick secondary /lit/

Avoid Rebecca Goldstein, her books are probably popular /lit/











0674665953 (Classic! But of of print, just download it off genlib)

Continental Philosophy leaning /lit/:







Spinoza Complete Works ISBN:0872206203

Only edition of the complete works of Spinoza in english, enough said.

The Collected Works of Spinoza



Volume II out in 2016

HAVE THIS TOO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lNFTN5IBny0


Quick secondary /lit/







Philosophical Essays (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872200620  

G.W. Leibniz’s Monadology an Edition for Students ISBN: 0822954494

A bit tricker considering Leibniz wrote philosophical passages in scattered places of his corpus (which is huge),  the editions below have one overlapping translation (Monadology) but recommended anyways as reading different translations is very helpful. Read Discourses first and Monadology last.


Quick secondary /lit/

Continental Philosophy leaning /lit/:


This is written in english so Penguin can be used (But use the Clarendon over it!)

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke) ISBN: 0198245955

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Turd Classics) ISBN: 0140434828  


Berkeley: Philosophical Writings (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) ISBN: 0521707625







A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford Philosophical Texts) ISBN: 0198751729

Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals (Clarendon Press) ISBN: 0198245351

Read the Treatise before the Enquiry and heres a bonus video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rsJlsrXQfzI

Honorable mentions of other Philosophers of this time:


If you like Descartes and theology (Theodicy) you should read this guy. Also occasionalism.

Blaise Pascal

If you like more theology you should read this guy. Commonly known for “Pascal’s Wager”.

Francis Bacon

Wrote The Novum Organum which rejected Aristotelian teleology and laid the foundations for the modern scientific method. Most likely a good read if you become interested in Philosophy of Science.


Major Renaissance Skeptic and Humanist known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.

Giordano Bruno

*Deleuze has a book on leibniz as well but has a horrible translation


Covering Important texts in early Political Philosophy across the political spectrum. You should read a text regardless of your own political position, for one has to know the enemy!

Start off with Hobbes!


Political Realism

Today Machiavelli is mostly remembered for writing The Prince and being an “Machiavellian”, unknown to idiots Machiavelli also authored other works which illuminate his real thought (he was a hardcore republican you know). Some good secondary /lit/ on this thinker would be by Mansfield, Viroli and Strauss.

The Essential Writings of Machiavelli (Modern Library Classics) ISBN: 0812974239

Note that this book only has extracts from some of his other works (though this edition is good as it has previously untranslated works), unabridged editions of his other works shall be given here. Note that the edition above has The Prince unabridged.

Discourses on Livy (Oxford World's Classics) ISBN: 9780199555550

Art of War (Chicago Press) ISBN: 0226500462

Florentine Histories (Princeton University) ISBN: 0691008639

Or check out Albert Gilbert's three volume set if you're a patrician.


Conservative Philosophy

Very important text due to it’s influence, read read read!!!

Leviathan: With selected variants from the Latin edition of 1668 (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872201775 

There’s also a Cambridge edition of this but supposedly that edition has poor scholarly notes. (Don’t buy the Penguin edition either.) Best thing about this edition is it’s MODERN english! You should also read this before reading any political philosophy below.

 ALSO I LOVE SONGS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eejsB6PbaAk


Libertarian philosophy

Locke Two Treatises of Government (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) ISBN: 0521357306

I’ve decided to put Locke’s political theory here because it fits better in relation to Hobbes’s Leviathan; this edition is chosen because it contains the first and second treatise. Also another song https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kItXvJLnTtk (This one isn’t as good though)


Romantic/Revolutionary Philosophy

Rousseau: The Basic Political Writings 2nd edition (Hackett) ISBN: 1603846735

 Emile: Or On Education (translated by Alan Bloom) ISBN: 0465019315

Warning: Don’t buy the first edition of Hackett as the second edition has more content.

This collection contains the famous essay “On the social contract” and many more.


 Liberal Philosophy

The Spirit of the Laws (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) ISBN: 0521369746                

Lays the foundations for what we call the separation of church and state.                            

Persian Letters: With Related Texts (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 1624661807

A critique of society in the form of a fictional novel.


Anti-Catholic, Anti-Monotheistic***

Candide (A Norton Critical Edition) ISBN: 0393960587

Voltaire's Satirical masterpiece. From the church to Leibniz he attacks without mercy.

Note that Voltaire is not an Atheist but a Deist.

Subsection on writings regarding (French) revolution:

These texts are on the French revolution, they should be read in this order below (one can switch Maistre and Paine around). It’s also good if you have read Rousseau and maybe Voltaire as well.


Radical/Republican Philosophy

Price Political Writings ISBN: 0521409691


Conservative/Traditionalist Philosophy

Note: A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful is a work on Aesthetics not political philosophy, I had nowhere else to put it and I felt I could not leave it out.

A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (Oxford World's Classics) ISBN: 0199537887

Reflections on the Revolution in France ISBN: 0199539022

A reactionary essay on why the revolution was a horrible thing.


Revolutionary Philosophy

Rights of Man, Common Sense, and Other Political Writings (Oxford World's Classics) ISBN:019953800X

Read Right’s of Man after his other earlier works, one should also compare this text to Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France.

Joseph de Maistre

Conservative/Traditionalist Philosophy

Considerations on France (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) ISBN: 0521466288

With an introduction by well known conservative philosopher Isaiah Berlin, this is a defence of monarchy after the French revolution.



Liberal philosophy

Democracy in America: In Two Volumes (Liberty Fund) ISBN: 0865978409

You are absolutely retarded if you don’t get this edition if you are going to read Tocqueville, comprehensive two volume edition for cheap. EXTENSIVE SCHOLARSHIP for 20 bucks! (at the time of writing)

Introduction on Utilitarianism:

Short waypoint to founding Utilitarianism thought, if you love Peter Singer and Consequentialist ethics read these books!


An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Dover Philosophical Classics) ISBN: 0486454525

Read first, influenced J.S. Mill who further developed his Consequentialist theory into Utilitarianism, among other things Bentham is recognised as the first animal rights activist.


The Utilitarianism (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 087220605X

Mill’s development of Consequentialist theory into an proper ethical system, must read for Utilitarians.

J. S. Mill: 'On Liberty' and Other Writings ISBN: 0521379172

Utilitarianism and liberal philosophy applied to political thought, a classic in the history of political theory.


To understand German Idealism one must go and read Kant>Fichte>Schelling>Hegel

I have mentioned the importance of translations  a couple of times already, German Idealism and beyond is where translation matters even MORE (PENGUIN IS STRICTLY BANNED HERE!). The list of books in this part shall be comprehensive for a serious understanding of Kant, Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.

Each of the German Idealists is related to another in some shape or form (they all relate back to Kant) and thus it is important to understand the previous before moving on to gain a networked knowledge base, to help with this I have also included secondary literature that deal with introducing the thinker. I don’t think these are necessary to buy aside from Kant’s one, because this guide should be structured enough to read primary works right off the bat. For example, I think you would not need a book on introducing early Schelling since you have read Fichte and Kant, but none the less I have included introductions for people who want them. Regarding an Hegel introduction please go to his part of Secondary Literature. Regarding the ordering of these works they are ordered in a pedagogical fashion and thus not ordered chronologically.

Books shown shall include overviews of the period, dictionaries & commentaries of the Idealists and multiple alternative editions of works. In regards to editions I will present each work with their original German title (if necessary), then the English title and ISBN, a short sentence/paragraph and reason for choosing the edition.

Introductory works:

German Philosophy 1760-1860: The Legacy of Idealism ISBN: 0521663814

>In the second half of the eighteenth century, German philosophy dominated European philosophy, changing the way Europeans and people all over the world conceived of themselves and thought about nature, religion, human history, politics, and the structure of the human mind. In this rich and wide-ranging book, Terry Pinkard interweaves the story of "Germany"–changing during this period from a loose collection of principalities into a newly-emerged nation with a distinctive culture–with an examination of the currents and complexities of its developing philosophical thought. He examines the dominant influence of Kant, with his revolutionary emphasis on "self-determination," and traces this influence through the development of romanticism and idealism to the critiques of post-Kantian thinkers such as Schopenhauer and Kierkegaard.

Covers the whole Period and even Schopenhauer and Kierkegaard’s relation to German 

Idealism in a tight 390 page book. 

German Idealism The Struggle against Subjectivism, 1781-1801 ISBN: 0674027175

A fucking whooping 752 page book on early German Idealism (1781-1801, before Hegel published his Phenomenology and when he was a nobody). Highly recommended because it reminds us that Kant, Fichte and Schelling aren’t just stepping stones to Hegel.

On which one to read: Both duhh, this is the patrician and /lit/erate board after all right?


Transcendental Idealism

Before reading Immanuel Kant it is important that you understood the Rationalists and Empiricists, this is highly important. Secondly it is helpful to read various secondary literature 

which supplement your reading of Kant’s writings.

Secondary writings:

Kant's Critical Philosophy The Doctrine of the Faculties ISBN: 0816614369

We have Deleuze again, just 104 pages.

>Provides a short introduction to Kant, emphasizing Kant's own view of his philosophy. Deleuze offers an overview of the whole of Kant's "critical philosophy".

Deleuze is picked because this is a easy way to get acquainted with Deleuze’s more complex writings (if you want to do Continental Phil), the book itself is also short, covers the three Critiques systematically and I don’t think you want to read another 700 page book. But if you do want to read another long book I suggest a book by either Guyer, Allison, Smith or Heinrich.

A Kant Dictionary ISBN: 0631175350  

Self-Explanatory really, explains Kantian terminology and concepts. Highly recommended!

Kant’s works (Read in order!!!)


Deals with Kant’s Metaphysics, Epistemology and Logic

Lectures on Logic

The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant ISBN: 0521546915

Dover ISBN: 0486256502

A very underrated thing to do is read Kant’s Lectures on Logic like one reads Aristotle’s Organon before reading his Physics and Metaphysics (By the way you should read Categories again, you will need it for CPR.), this series of lectures are basically a textbook guide on Kant’s Transcendental Logic in CPR. 

Cambridge Edition has Lectures Blomberg Logic (1770s); the Vienna Logic supplemented by the recently discovered Hechsel Logic (1780s); and the Dohna-Wundlacken Logic (1790s). Also included is a new translation of the J?sche Logic, compiled at Kant's request from his lectures and published in 1800. It is a whooping 732 pages just on Logic. The Dover edition (Which I have) is a much slimmer edition (under 200) pages and only contains the 1800 lectures, it has a lengthy translator's introduction and is almost has notes on every page so it’s not a bad edition if you don’t want to go through 700 pages. The Cambridge Edition is clearly superior except in price.

(Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten k?nnen)

Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (Hackett) ISBN: 0872205932

This is basically a training wheel for Kant’s most influential work, and likely one of the most influential works of continental philosophy. His project in the Prolegomena is to clarify the transcendental aesthetic and investigate whether metaphysics can really be possible as a science. Kant says that David Hume’s Enquiry woke him “From his dogmatic slumbers” and thus led him to write this.

This edition cheaper than the Cambridge edition and has the letter to Marcus Herz.



       Guyer                           Pluhar                               Smith

(Kritik der reinen Vernunft)    

Critique of Pure Reason

Guyer translation ISBN: 0521657296

Pluhar translation ISBN: 0872202577

Smith translation ISBN: 0230013384

No doubt Kant’s greatest contribution to philosophy, not too much is needed to say about the  importance of this text. Take your pick on the Translation, all three are used in Academia (Smith translation is an good ole classic) but Ideally it would be wise to buy one (or two) of these english & the original German if you can afford it (and a dictionary, see Kant in German below) and do a triple way comparison! If you are planning to buy Kant's other works from Cambridge Edition of Kant for further reading (see the endnotes) buy the Guyer version for consistency.

You might of noticed something here, no Penguin edition. Thats right, this is the perfect place to say fuck Penguin, for such a critical piece of Philosophical work this would be the worst place to use a Penguin edition. Penguin are just jews who reprinted an expired copyright translation! NO PENGUIN!!!                                                  


Deals with Kant’s Ethics and Political Philosophy

(Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten)

Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy ISBN: 1107401062

Hackett Classics ISBN: 087220166X

Sort of like like Prolegomena for Practical Reasoning, definitely read first.

Reasoning: The translator of the Cambridge edition (Mary Gregor) has also translated many other superb works of Kant, it is also more literal than the Hackett translation. Though the Hackett edition includes “On a Supposed Right to Lie because of Philanthropic Concerns and is cheaper.

Kant Political Writings (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) ISBN: 0521398371 

Contains well known Political writings such as Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufkl?rung? (Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?), Die Metaphysik der Sitten (The Metaphysics of Morals) & much more.

The compilation of above mentioned texts in an unabridged cheap book AND MORE! There are also no other overlapping texts so it fits well in regards to other books in this Practical Reason section.

(Kritik der praktischen Vernunft)

Critique of Practical Reason

Kant Critique of Practical Reason (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) ISBN: 1107467055

Critique of Practical Reason (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872206173

Kant’s magnum opus on moral ethics and a foundational text on deontological ethics. Kant explores the moral imperative of a person, universality of ethical act and the hypothetical kingdom of ends.
Make sure you buy the revised Cambridge edition instead of the old one*, both translations are great with Pluhar and Gregor respectively. I also placed this last despite the fact that some of the works in the books above dealing with morality were published after this work due to the fact that this is the hardest one.


Deals with Kant’s Aesthetics

(Kritik der Urteilskraft)

Critique of Judgment

Critique of Judgment (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872200256

Critique of the Power of Judgment (The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant) ISBN: 0521348927

Another foundational text by Kant, where he explores how aesthetic judgement is formed, the sublime and teleological judgement.

Seeing a pattern here? Cambridge and Hackett are the best publishers, there are Oxford and Dover editions but don’t bother with those.


The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant**

Most Complete edition of Kant’s work in English which also includes alternate translations of some of the works above and translations of lesser known works.

Kant in German

If you want to study Kant extensively (and seriously) you will have to read him German.There is Immanuel Kant: Werke: Akademie-Textausgabe which can be found on German Amazon. There is also the Meiner Verlag (Meiner Publisher) & Suhrkamp Verlag (Suhrkamp Publisher) editions. These are ridiculously huge Multi-Volume sets.

*Old unrevised edition is 0521599628


On Analytic philosophy and its relation to Fichte, Schelling and Hegel

Since Analytic usually philosophy has a rather negative to absolute outright dismissal of these thinkers as “total hacks, charlatans and masters of obfuscation” (though there has been a recent interest in Hegel) I have decided to steer the guide to a much more continental side for a moment since I would think it would benefit the majority of readers who would bother reading these three thinkers as Continental philosophy has given much much more support in reading these philosophers .

Idealism sucks balls! – Bertrand Russell

Protip: Skip everything below till Schopenhauer if you're doing Analytic philosophy unless you happen to like something like the Pittsburgh Hegelians or pragmatists like Richard Rorty.


Subjective Idealism

Teacher of Schopenhauer and the first step away from Kant, Fichte posits the subjective Ego (Ich, the “I”) at the center of his thought.

Also in regards to who publishes english translations of Fichte and Schelling they are a bit neglected in english so there’s usually only one translation. Though if were ever to be alternate translations, translations by Fichte scholar Breazeale are recommended for Fichte.

Secondary writings:

Fichte's Transcendental Philosophy: The Original Duplicity of Intelligence and Will (Modern European Philosophy) ISBN: 0521892732

Since Fichtean scholarship is not popular, this is the only introduction to Fichte.

Fichte's Work (Read in order!!!)

Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings ISBN: 080148121X

The Vocation of Man (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872202399

Introductions to the Wissenschaftslehre and Other Writings (1797-1800) (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872202399

These are all preppers for later work, the Introductions to the Wissenschaftslehre and Other Writings is probably the most important out of these three to pay extra attention to.

Fichte Foundations of Transcendental Philosophy (Wissenschaftslehre) nova methodo (1796-99) ISBN: 0801481384

The Science of Knowledge With the First and Second Introductions (Texts in German Philosophy) ISBN: 0521270502

Fichte’s most famous and widely read works where he fully explicates his philosophy of Subjective Idealism (the absolute “I”) and the doctrines of Wissenschaftslehre. Some of his most complex and mature writings can be found here.

Fichte: Foundations of Natural Right ISBN: 0521575915

Fichte: The System of Ethics ISBN: 0521577675  

Here his political and ethical theory, Fichte in a array of complex ideas discusses the meaning of freedom in relation to positing the realisation of self-consciousness is the communicative act of the external other. 


I have not read any myself but I think a good suggestion would be Fichte scholar Daniel Breazeale’s essays. He’s really the only Fichte scholar out there too, good luck!

The Science Of Knowing J.g. Fichte's 1804 Lectures On The Wissenschaftslehre (Suny Series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy) ISBN: 0791464504

A very very recent translation (2005), further sets forth his Wissenschaftslehre.

Many ideas we associate with Schopenhauer are found here so read if you're an Schopenhauer fan!

FICHTE in German:

Taken from Stanford wiki

Johann Gottlieb Fichte's nachgelassene Werke, 3 vols., ed. I. H. Fichte (Bonn: Adolph-Marcus, 1834-35).

Johann Gottlieb Fichte's s?mmtliche Werke, 8 vols., ed. I. H. Fichte (Berlin: Veit, 1845–46). [Taken together, these 11 volumes, edited by Fichte's son, constituted the first attempt at a complete edition of his works and are still widely cited and reprinted, most recently by de Gruyter, under the title Fichte's Werke.]

J. G. Fichte: Gesamtausgabe der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, ed. Erich Fuchs, Reinhard Lauth, Hans Jacobs, and Hans Gliwitzky (Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann, 1964-2012) 42 vols. [Organized into four separate series—writings published by Fichte, unpublished writings, correspondence, and student lecture transcripts—this monumental critical edition supersedes all earlier editions.]


Naturphilosophie, Identit?tsphilosophie, Positive Philosophie

It’s hard to present just a modest amount of books to represent the former roommate of Hegel turned rival’s philosophy as his philosophy changed constantly over the span of his life.

The majority of translations are quite recent and most of them are published only by SUNY due to neglect.

Secondary Writings:

Schelling and Modern European Philosophy an Introduction ISBN: 0415103479

>This is a book written for advanced undergraduate students of philosophy by an author who, at the time, was Professor of European Philosophy at Anglia Polytechnic University in Cambridge. Bowie here gives a detailed account of the ideas of a German philosopher whose work tends to get overlooked as it was produced between that of the much more influential philosophers, Kant and Hegel. 

Schelling’s Work (Read in order!!!)

Early Schelling

Schelling’s Naturphilosophie (Natural Philosophy) is to be found here

The Philosophical Rupture between Fichte and Schelling: Selected Texts and Correspondence (1800-1802) (Suny Series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy) ISBN: 1438440189

>This volume brings together the letters the two philosophers exchanged between 1800 and 1802 and the texts that each penned with the other in mind. “The book presents an unparalleled opportunity to observe an important set of Fichte's and Schelling’s philosophical exchanges and has the potential to affect one’s understanding of post-Kantian philosophy in a lasting way … This well-conceived and carefully edited volume shines a bright light on a crucial and formative time in the lives of both Fichte and Schelling

This book is placed here to draw lines of Fichte’s and Schelling’s Philosophy before delving into Schelling’s work proper.


Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature (Texts in German Philosophy) ISBN: 0521357330

System of Transcendental Idealism ISBN: 0813914582

Here Schelling develops ideas on Naturphilosophie which will culminate in his First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature, here Schelling is an anti-Newtonian and instead incorporates an neoplatonic view of nature.In the System of Transcendental Idealism Schelling goes back to Fichtean terminology (which he later abandons). He endeavours to explain the emergence of the thinking subject from nature in terms of an ‘absolute I’ coming retrospectively to know itself in a ‘history of self-consciousness’ that forms the material of the system. The System of Transcendental Idealism recounts the history of which the transcendental subject is the result.

First Outline of a System of the Philosophy of Nature ISBN: 0813914582

Schelling’s culmination and full exposition of his Naturphilosophie.

The Philosophy of Art ISBN: 0816616841   

In the Philosophy of Art Schelling sets out an ordered system on theory of art based on German Idealism. Here he deals with various forms of art including music, painting, sculpture, narrative, poetry and ends with tragedy. For Schelling the Genius and his works of art are the conscious and the unconscious being "=" in one.

Middle Schelling

Schelling’s Identit?tsphilosophie & Weltalter

Philosophy and Religion ISBN: 0882145932

>An important early work of the German idealist philosopher F.W.J. Schelling. Philosophy and Religion (1804) is considered a precursor to his major work on freedom, his Philosophical Inquiries into the Nature of Human Freedom (1809). In Philosophy and Religion, Schelling raises the question of how philosophy can come to terms with the failure of approaching the highest principle of being, the Absolute (or God).

Unfortunately the real starting point of Schelling’s Identit?tsphilosophie has not been translated (System der Naturphilosophie insbesondere) and thus here with this book we start with Schelling’s Identit?tsphilosophie.

Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom (Suny Series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy) ISBN: 0791468747

This work deals with the conception of freedom (Also Kantian radical evil) and has influences from the theosophist Jakob B?hme (B?hme also influences Hegel and others, you should google this). Celebrated by Zizek as his best work and also drawn the ire of Heidegger!

The Abyss of Freedom/Ages of the World (The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism)  ISBN: 0472066528

The Ages of the World: (Fragment) from the Handwritten Remains, Third Version (C. 1815) (Suny Series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy)  ISBN:  079144418X

These two are translations of Schelling’s unfinished work Weltalter, a short but very complex and important work to understanding Schelling. The SUNY translation contains a 1815 version of the work while the other one contains the 1813 one with an essay by Zizek (Lacan required to fully understand this Zizekian essay!) 

Late Schelling

Positive Philosophie

If one is to read late Schelling it be done after Hegel! Here one finds a very different Schelling who became a reactionary and converted to Catholicism.

On the History of Modern Philosophy (Texts in German Philosophy) ISBN: 052140861X

>On the History of Modern Philosophy is a key transitional text in the history of European philosophy. In it F.W.J. Schelling surveys philosophy from Descartes to German Idealism and shows why the Idealist project is ultimately doomed to failure. Schelling's work traces the path of philosophy from Descartes through Spinoza, Leibniz, Kant, Fichte, Jacobi, to Hegel and Schelling's own work. The extensive critiques of Hegel prefigure many of the arguments to be found in Feuerbach, Kierkegaard, Marx, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Derrida.


The Grounding of Positive Philosophy The Berlin Lectures (Suny Series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy) ISBN: 0791471306

Lectures in Berlin (1842) are in part a critique of Hegel which grounds Schelling’s philosophy as existential “Positive Philosophy” and these series of lectures were interestingly attended by Kierkegaard, Engels, Feuerbach, Marx, and Bakunin

Philosophies of Nature after Schelling ISBN: 1847064329  

For big Schelling fans this is a very very very very good work on Schelling in relation to today’s contemporary philosophy and is also a small window to today’s cutting edge discourse in Continental Philosophy but it’s some advanced shit so just be careful! The reason I put this here is because there not many books on Schelling and a Schelling fan having difficulty with this book can pick it back up later when we move to Iain Hamilton Grant and Speculative Realism. 

The New Schelling ISBN:

Iain Hamilton Grant joins Alberto Toscano, Jürgen Habermas, Slavoj Zizek and others in connecting Schelling to other thinkers like Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, Sartre, Deleuze, and Lacan. Of course we have not covered these thinkers yet but I had nowhere else to put this!

Or anything by Jason M. Wirth


Absolute Idealism

Before going any further I suggest revising Aristotle's Organon again and re-read Heraclitus. If you haven’t read Heraclitus please go back and check out Heraclitus. This section on Hegel will be very long, if you are thinking “but but I just want one book to understand everything Hegel said!!!” go fuck off and no we aren’t going to start with Ph?nomenologie des Geistes, that’s the worst thing to do.

Secondary literature:

Of course you may ask, will Zizek be here due to his meme status? Not exactly as here I have included only books which require no advanced knowledge of later thinkers, for example Zizek’s reading of Hegel requires advanced knowledge of later thinkers like Lacan and Marx which we have not gotten into yet. Same for other Hegelians like Fredric Jameson, I have included his “The Hegel Variations: On the Phenomenology of Spirit” but not his “Valences of the Dialectic” which refers to Lukács, Heidegger, Sartre, Derrida, and Althusser and more. You will see Zizek’s and Jameson’s other works in their own sections but for now you can have Zizek in the form of him explaining the Hegelian dialectic in the form of a joke: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmJVsaxoQSw 

There will also be no “General introductions for dumbasses” or “companion” books in the secondary literature section. Why? Because there's already 1000 pages of introducing German Idealism already (You should of read both introductions). If you want to know Hegel’s relation to the earlier German Idealists for example you read Hegel himself (this example will be presented in more detail in Hegel’s works)

But if you must use a layman's guide use this one 0521003873. DO NOT PICK PETER SINGER’s one (019280197X)! Yes I do hate Peter Singer for being a stupid liberal who unknowingly shills for neo-liberal capitalism (This is not the right place to explain why) but this is not the reason in relation to Hegel. Peter Singer is an Analytic Philosopher whose work deals with Ethics and NOT HEGEL, he also makes the very common mistake of reducing Hegel’s dialectic to Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis triad, a very grave mistake!

Reading secondary literature should read prior, alongside or after the corresponding primary work (depends on the works), for example a commentary on Hegel’s logic should be read in conjunction to Hegel’s works on Logic.

Where the secondary literature listing actually starts:

Hegelian Dictionaries:




Introduction to the Reading of Hegel Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit ISBN:



Genesis and Structure of Hegel's "Phenomenology of Spirit" ISBN: 0810105942

There are two classical texts on Hegel that everyone should have when reading Hegel (which also should be read and bought first before any other secondary literature below!), Jean Hyppolite’s Genesis and Structure of Hegel's "Phenomenology of Spirit" and Alexandre Kojeve’s Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit. As the titles say these are readings on Hegel’s Ph?nomenologie des Geistes

These two texts had a huge impact on how Hegel was dealt with in 20th century Continental Philosophy and influenced many philosophers like Derrida, Foucault and Deleuze etc.

Alexandre Kojeve and Jean Hyppolite make the two opposing camps of Hegelians. Kojeve had a Humanist and Hyppolite basically had a proto postmodern reading of Hegel.

Pour les francophones:

The english translation of Kojeve's work is actually abridged, here's the French: 2070295281

Here's Hyppolite in French and contemporary Continental philosopher Alain Badiou’s dealings with him:

ISBN: 2700700090



Quick note on online lectures:  

There are online lectures mainly on Hegel’s Phenomenology, I don’t know which ones are good or bad either and a actual professor lecturing you in class is much better anyways. 

More secondary literature (Holy fuck this part is long right?):

Above was the BARE conservative minimum on secondary literature! To truly understand Hegel more reading is required! There are tons and tons of Hegel interpretations and commentaries out there, here I really suggest you should find one right for you for yourself!  If I claim that the following books are the best books on Hegel someone no matter what will cry out against me due to the sheer amount of scholarship done on Hegel, so take the following really as my subjective opinion and explore the Hegel scholarship for yourself!! Sorry if I miss any of your favourite works on Hegel. 


The secondary literature in the following divisions are not ordered in anyway (for example best on top or alphabetically)

I’m too poor! I spent my money on buying the two classical commentaries already and other things!

You don’t have to buy ALL of these (seriously if you aren’t that interested in Hegel just buy 1 or none) but buy kindle versions or second hand? Just remember though some kindle versions are absolute trash and buy second hand with CLEAN insides so you can rape the value of the copy yourself with your own highlighting, notes and underlining. My sympathies with your budget.

Works on Hegel’s Phenomenology:



The Hegel Variations: On the Phenomenology of Spirit ISBN: 1844676161

A very recent publication and interpretation of Hegel (2010), useful for understanding today’s academic Hegel. It is a mere 144 pages but do not be fooled as it is dense! The Marxist literary and political theorist Fredric Jameson gives a more fluid and open interpretation of Hegel’s system than opposed to a traditionally closed one and for the more meme inclined this book is Zizek approved! (Zizek himself also gives a more open interpretation of Hegel and is friends with Jameson).

Hegel's Ladder (Vol 1 & 2) ISBN: 0872202801

Lo and behold! An approx 1500 page commentary in TWO VOLUMES! This fuckhuge commentary is supposedly 30 years of scholarship in the actualisation by H.S. Harris and is a word by word, sentence by sentence analysis of JUST the Phenomenology of Spirit! It’s also really expensive. Must have for budding Hegelian wizards! Note: No cover art, this scholarship is too serious for that!

In the Spirit of Hegel ISBN: 0195036506

 >In this book, Solomon captures the bold and exhilarating spirit, presenting the Phenomenology as a thoroughly personal as well as philosophical work. He begins with a historical introduction, which lays the groundwork for a section-by-section analysis of the Phenomenology.

 A good replacement for cucks who don’t want to read Hegel’s Ladder (not saying this book isn’t good in itself!).

Hegel on Self-Consciousness: Desire and Death in the Phenomenology of Spirit (Princeton Monographs in Philosophy) ISBN: 0691163413

Probably the easiest due to the page count (a mere 120) but not the least complex! As the title says the famed American Hegelian scholar Robert B. Pippin offers an interpretation and focus on Hegel’s passages on self-consciousness, for Hegel "self-consciousness is desire itself".

Hegel's Phenomenology: The Sociality of Reason ISBN: 052156834X

Pinkard develops an independent philosophical account of the general theory of knowledge, culture, and history contained in Phenomenology. The book reconstructs Hegel's theoretical philosophy and shows its connection to ethical and political theory.

Work on Hegel’s Science of Logic:

The Opening of Hegel's Logic: From Being to Infinity (History of Philosophy Series) ISBN: 1557532575

>Hegel’s Logic has fewer commentaries than his other works but is just a crucial and this book not only introduces Hegel’s Science of Logic it also deals with contemporaries of Hegel or near contemporaries (Schelling, Trendelenburg, Kierkegaard) and moving all the way through modern times ( Derrida, Pippin etc). The reader gets both an introduction to Hegel's logic and an introduction to the historical debates surrounding the interpretation of Hegel's thought and logic.

An Introduction to Hegel's Logic (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872204243

I’m going to play the counterfactual game here, this oddball is a introduction of Hegel’s logic in a mere 152 pages from an philosopher who makes references to Analytic philosophers when explaining Hegel’s Logic. For more info on Analytics dealing with Hegel check out the “Pittsburgh Hegelians”.

The Idea of Hegel's "Science of Logic" ISBN: 022606588X

>Rosen has no interest in soft-pedaling Hegel's apparent theological claims, as many recent promoters of a "non-metaphysical" or essentially Kantian Hegel have wanted to do. Rosen takes Hegel's statements about "God" at face value, not as referring to God as commonly understood, but as referring to something that deserves the eminence traditionally assigned to God.Rosen does this because he agrees with Hegel that modern thought and modern life in general are in deep trouble, and require what may seem to be pretty drastic measures to save them. We are constantly threatened by "the nihilism of multiple and mutually exclusive partial views, perspectives, interpretations, or opinions about human life" (72). This amounts to "chaos." To overcome it, we must find "intelligibility" in the world and our experience. The effort of western philosophy since Anaxagoras and Socrates has been precisely to find such intelligibility, and Hegel, as Rosen interprets him, aims to continue and consummate this effort.Rosen agrees with Hegel that the major effort of Immanuel Kant to this same end was unsuccessful, inasmuch as Kant located intelligibility not in the world as such, but only in the categories by which the transcendental subject thinks the world. Hegel's aim is to find intelligibility in the world or in being as such, and thus to bridge the gulf between subject and object which Kant had failed to bridge.

Hegel’s works (Read in Order!!!)

The Hegel starters kit!

Early Theological Writings (Works in Continental Philosophy) ISBN: 0812210220

Hegel Faith and Knowledge ISBN: 088706826X

The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy ISBN: 0887068278

Lectures on Logic ISBN: 0253351677

These neglected collection of short works are excellent training wheels for Hegel’s most well known and very very difficult works Ph?nomenologie des Geistes, Wissenschaft der Logik & Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts. Early Theological Writings illuminate Hegel’s later conception of God and the Absolute while both Faith and Knowledge & The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's System of Philosophy give an account of Hegel’s relation to the earlier German Idealists in HIS OWN WORDS and thus this is BETTER than any  commentator can give on this subject!!! In the former Hegel gives his critique of Kant and commentary of Fichte and Schelling in the latter. Lectures on Logic are a compilation on the Berlin lectures regarding logic, easy to read in lecture format this will help to illuminate Hegel’s dialectical thinking. READ THIS STUFF AND PHIL. OF HISTORY FIRST!

Philosophy of history

The Philosophy of History (Dover Philosophical Classics) ISBN: 0486437558

Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (Cambridge Studies in the History and Theory of Politics ISBN: 0521281458

Hegel lectures on his Philosophy of history but unfortunately there have not been full translations of these lectures, for more Hegel lectures on Philosophy of History scroll down to OUP lectures in FURTHER READING ON HEGEL division. Also please note these two books shown here contain different materials which are meant to supplement each other so buy both (unless you buy the OUP lectures edition)! For more info read this http://ndpr.nd.edu/news/27787-lectures-on-the-philosophy-of-world-history-vol-i-manuscripts-of-the-introduction-and-the-lectures-of-1822-3/

This is what an ordinary Encyclopedia turns into when it’s touched by Hegel’s wizardry!

(Enzyklop?die der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse)

The Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences

The Encyclopaedia Logic: Part I of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences with the Zus?tze (Hackett Classics) ISBN: 0872200701

Hegel's Philosophy of Nature: Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1830), Part II (Hegel's Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences) ISBN: 0199272670

Hegel: Philosophy of Mind: A revised version of the Wallace and Miller translation ISBN:  0199593027

Basically a textbook Hegel wrote outlining his mature works so this would the next logical place to read. The Encyclopedia is split up into three parts; Logic, Philosophy of Nature and Philosophy of Mind (Not to be confused with Ph?nomenologie des Geistes) each outlining critical points of Hegel’s philosophy. The translations presented (sequentially) are Hackett (Zus?tze are notes taken by Hegel’s students), Oxford and a revised Oxford edition. On alternate translations there is an Cambridge translation of part one (9780521829144) but I opted for Hackett due to it being an established edition (Being conservative here!), BUT from an academic reviewing site here’s a different opinion:

https://ndpr.nd.edu/news/24778-encyclopedia-of-the-philosophical-sciences-in-basic-outline-part-i-science-of-logic/ There is only one translation of Part 2 and with in regards to Part 3 the 2010 revised edition of the old Oxford edition by Michael Inwood  is superb and should not be replaced with anything else! 


Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit ISBN: 0198245971 

The Phenomenology of Mind (Philosophical Classics) 0486432513

Draft of Terry Pinkard’s translation link: https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/21288399/Phenomenology%20translation%20English%20German.pdf

(Ph?nomenologie des Geistes)

Phenomenology of Spirit (Mind)

If you somehow don’t know already, geist is also translated as “Mind” and the Hegelian dialectic is NOT Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis seriously holy fuck! Don’t get this wrong! This was made up by a guy named Heinrich Moritz Chalyb?us who is rightly ignored today for his horrible interpretation.

Hegel’s legendary work! When one advises to read slowly word by word it really does matter here! This text is absolutely crucial to understanding Hegel and must must must read for Continental philosophy! If one could ever properly sum up this text in one phrase it would be “The Rational alone is Real”. There are two classic translations, Miller and Baille. Both are useful (Miller is very very much preferred). Regarding Hardback versions of these translations from 3rd party publishers they can be found here 1616405562 and here 8120814738 but I cannot comment on their quality as I do not have them so proceed with care! The Terry Pinkard translation is a new one under construction but available online for free and will be published in the Cambridge Hegel Translations (Which is also under construction at the time of writing) Since this is such a hard book to read I suggest you read this using all three translations with reference to the original German!




(Wissenschaft der Logik)

Science of Logic                                          

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel The Science of Logic (Cambridge Hegel Translations) ISBN: 1107499631

Hegel's Science of Logic : 1573922803

In America I hear they like to ignore this work despite it being just as important as Phenomenology. On the translation here I will refer to an article below


The review recommends the new Giovanni over the old one but for the purposes of university courses and the more conservative I have presented the Miller one as well due to it being a well accepted translation, the new Giovanni was only published on the February 12th, 2015.

(Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts)

Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Law)

Hegel Elements of the Philosophy of Right (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought) ISBN: 0521348889  

Hegel’s exquisite political thought here, here Hegel shares his thoughts with the Prussian Monarchy and Hegel’s ideal state which influenced thinkers ranging from the far left to the far right! 

Lectures on the Philosophy of Spirit 1827-8

You are probably surprised this is here (only translated in 2007). This is another Berlin lecture where Hegel covers “subjective spirit” in part 3 of the encyclopaedia sciences and this book has new information on material associated with the Ph?nomenologie des Geistes, including the notorious 'struggle for recognition' in chapter 4 and thus this is crucial to understand Hegel. For more info look at OUP Hegel lectures below.



The Young Hegel Studies in the Relations between Dialectics and Economics ISBN: 0262620332

If you want a Hegel that's “Hegel the Marxist before Marx” and “Hegel the critical theorist” here it is! Here the founder of Western Marxism Georg Lukács presents Hegel not as a Hegelian as we know but as someone who preceded Marx’s materialism.

 Hegel's Idealism: The Satisfactions of Self-Consciousness

If you want something more Metaphysical here it is! Pippin presents Hegel as >neither as a pre-critical metaphysician nor as a social theorist, but as a critical philosopher whose disagreements with Kant, especially on the issue of intuitions, enrich the idealist arguments against empiricism, realism, and naturalism. In the face of the dismissal of absolute idealism as either unintelligible or implausible, Pippin explains and defends an original account of the philosophical basis for Hegel's claims about the historical and social nature of self-consciousness and of knowledge itself.

             The OUP Hegel lectures http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/category/academic/series/philosophy/hegel.do

Warning: For Hegelian wizards only!

If you have money and want to become a true Hegelian wizard then have these series of Berlin lectures! These lectures are really really really recently translated and some volumes in this series contain the only English translations of Hegel’s lectures! Translations include pic-related, the only english translation of the 1827-8 Philosophy of spirit lectures which contains lectures on “Subjective Spirit” in Part 3 of the Encyclopaedia Science! 

At the time of writing a translation of Hegel’s Philosophy of World History 1822-1823 Lectures in full with probably more to come! If you want more Hegel on Philosophy of World History here it is! Another goodie is this series contains new translations of Lectures on History of Philosophy where Hegel starts from the ancients to himself, if you want what Hegel thought of the History of Philosophy why not buy the words of the man himself? As  of the time of writing there are 11 Volumes in this series each containing unique material!

 NOTE: If you buy Hegel's Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, Vol. I & 2 don’t buy the Hegel: Lectures on the Philosophy of Art The Hotho Transcript of 1823 Berlin Lectures which is in this series!

Hegel's Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, Vol. I ISBN: 0198238169

Hegel's Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art, Vol. II ISBN: 9780198238171

Basically a compilation lectures Hegel had in his last decade of his life (Berlin Period) in two volumes translated by T.M Knox, this is the only indepth edition on Hegel’s Aesthetics available (at time of writing), all other editions are turd and don’t include the same amount of material as this one. The only downside is that it is expensive (at the time of writing a cheaper copy than amazon can be found from the publisher Oxford’s online store). These Lectures have more pages than

Hegel: Lectures on the Philosophy of Art The Hotho Transcript of 1823 Berlin Lectures in the OUP series above.

Introductory Lectures on Aesthetics (Penguin Classics) ISBN: 014043335X

Too poor for the Lectures above? Penguin has Hegel Introductory lectures on Aesthetics for a few dollars in the single digit! I really suggest the lectures above though!

After the Beautiful: Hegel and the Philosophy of Pictorial Modernism ISBN: 022607949X

>In his Berlin lectures on fine art, Hegel argued that art involves a unique form of aesthetic intelligibility—the expression of a distinct collective self-understanding that develops through historical time. Hegel’s approach to art has been influential in a number of different contexts, but in a twist of historical irony Hegel would die just before the most radical artistic revolution in history: modernism. In After the Beautiful, Robert B. Pippin, looking at modernist paintings by artists such as édouard Manet and Paul Cézanne through Hegel’s lens, does what Hegel never had the chance to do.

Once again Pippin is presented! This book is a perfect companion to the T.M Knox editions above!

Hegel and the Hermetic Tradition ISBN: 0801474507

The Heterodox Hegel ISBN: 079142006X

These two books claim that Hegel (Also other Romantic figures of this time) were influenced by the 2mystical4you that includes Baader, B?hme, Bruno which stretches all the way back to early Neoplatonism and Gnosticism.

Anatomy of Misremembering: Von Balthasar’s Response to Philosophical Modernity. Volume 1 Hegel ISBN: 0824525620

>This compelling work is the most comprehensive and sophisticated account to date of the relationship between Hans Urs von Balthasar—a Swiss theologian and Catholic priest—and the German philosopher Georg Hegel. While underscoring the depth and breadth of Balthasar’s engagement with the philosopher, author Cyril O’Regan argues that Balthasar is the most concertedly anti-Hegelian theologian of the 20th century. For him, it is essential to engage Hegel because of his corrections of sclerotic forms of premodern Christian thought, but even more importantly to resist and correct his systematic thought, which represents a comprehensive misremembering of the Christian thought, practices, and forms of life. An important and original work, this book addresses a topic that puts the possibility of an authentic postmodern theology at stake.

Recommended for more reading on Hegel’s theology, again by based Regan.

Hegel in German (also check Stanford):

Again there are two editions of Hegel from Meiner & Suhrkamp Verlag

Suhrkamp Verlag: A whooping 20 volume edition, this is the standard edition used in academia.


Note: It seems that it’s cheaper on amazon than on their Publisher website!

Meiner Verlag: Smaller 6 volume edition


Again I’m really sorry if I missed a favourite work on Hegel of yours!!


Jakob B?hme (Jacob Boehme)

German Theosophist who wrote lots of mystical writings and influenced Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer. You can read and learn about him here for free. Or buy better translations on Amazon or whatever. If you read the stuff in Expanded Western Medieval list, Western Christian Mysticism edition you will have a better understanding than someone else that has not as Boehme is very much in the line of Gnostic and mystical thought.



Also some secondary /lit/. Note that your getting into some pretty heretical mystical shit here.

The Later Philosophy of Schelling: The Influence of Boehme on the Works of 1809-1815 ISBN: 0838717551

Title says all really, pretty rare book on a such a specific topic, not recommended unless you're really interested. I guess if you really really liked Philosophical Investigations into the Essence of Human Freedom and Ages of the World  (mainly the usage of Grund/Ungrund but also other things) try and find a cheap copy as it seems to be out of print.

Science, Meaning, & Evolution: The Cosmology of Jacob Boehme ISBN: 0930407202

When I first saw this book I was surprised it was written by a theoretical physicist considering we live in Scientific dogmatist times. Title says all.

Gnostic Apocalypse: Jacob Boehme's Haunted Narrative ISBN: 0791450228

Gnostic Return in Modernity ISBN: 0791450228

Again from Cyril O'Regan we get more 2mystical4you. Seriously though all of this Boehme stuff above is pretty specific.

More Further readings:

Mythology, Madness, and Laughter: Subjectivity in German Idealism ISBN: 1441191054

It would help if you're familiar with Zizek’s theoretical work on German Idealism in some way, whether  it would be in books, articles or his jokes, I am not too sure on this TBH as I have not read it at the time of writing this and thus not sure if Zizek uses Lacan here as one should read Lacan before seriously reading Zizek’s theoretical work (when he mentions Lacan). It would also help if you happen to be familiar with Markus Gabriel work too!

German Romantic Poetry

Thats right! One must at least mention in passing the influence Schlegel, Goethe, Novalis,H?lderlin and Schiller!  Their Influence includes Schopenhauer, Schelling, Fichte, Hegel, Nietzsche, Freud and Heidegger. Here’s a quick list on various good books on the German Romantics (secondary lit):









(Schopenhauer, Nietzsche and Kierkegaard)


Behold! The great anti-Hegelian! (Interestingly he was influenced by Meister Eckhart)

>At first Fichte and Schelling shine as the heroes of this epoch; to be followed by the man who is quite unworthy even of them, and greatly their inferior in point of talent — I mean the stupid and clumsy charlatan Hegel.

Schopenhauer had influences from Kant, Fichte and Schelling (Schopenhauer even briefly attended Fichte’s lectures in 1812).

Secondary literature

Jokes on Schopie, compared to Hegel there is little philosophical secondary literature. But unlike Hegel, Schopenhauer influenced many artists, scientists and writers including Wagner, Tolstoy, Santayana, Mann, Borges,Einstein and Schr?dinger.  One should fully appreciate Schopenhauer by reading the non-philosophers who he influenced.


I will depart from what is usually done in this section by presenting you Wagner’s Der Ring Des Nibelungen on youtube: https://www.youtube.com/user/MrYuriFerro/videos

The Philosophy of Schopenhauer ISBN: 0198237227  

I bet you didn’t expect to see Bryan Magee again did you? If you are going to buy a book on Schopenhauer it’s gotta be this one. Magee gives a balance between an explanation of his life and his Philosophy.

Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy ISBN: 0674792769

This one is biographical compared to the one above but a very detailed biography.

Schopie’s works (Read in order!!!):

On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason ISBN: 9780521872713

One does not start with World Will and Representation but this work, Schopenhauer’s dissertation. Ideas including “The world as representation” develop here first!  The edition I have presented is an expensive but very new and very good edition of Schopenhauer’s work, remember this edition comes from Cambridge who also have done scholarly accepted translations of Hegel and Kant. Why these translations? The old translations done by E.J Payne were okay but E.J Payne was NOT a philosopher or a scholar but merely a enthusiast of Schopie! It’s time for the new translations to take reign!

The World as Will and Representation Vol 1 ISBN: 9781107414778

Now you read this! You should check out the appendix for a critique of Kant.

The World as Will and Representation Vol 2 ASIN: B00700YVIU

At the time of writing volume 2 has not being translated so we will have to stick to the old translation

Further reading of Schopenhauer:

The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics ISBN: 9781107414747

>Arthur Schopenhauer's The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics (1841) consists of two groundbreaking essays: 'On the Freedom of the Will' and 'On the Basis of Morals'. The essays make original contributions to ethics and display Schopenhauer's erudition, prose-style and flair for philosophical controversy, as well as philosophical views that contrast sharply with the positions of both Kant and Nietzsche. Written accessibly, they do not presuppose the intricate metaphysics which Schopenhauer constructs elsewhere.

I guess you can impress your non-philosophical friends (wow what a great feat!) with this book as it doesn’t need require any previous knowledge of Kant or Schopenhauer.

Parerga and Paralipomena ISBN: 9780521871389

>Described by Schopenhauer himself as 'incomparably more popular than everything up till now', the Parerga is a miscellany of essays addressing themes that complement his work The World as Will and Representation, along with more divergent, speculative pieces.

At the time of writing this is the last published edition from cambridge, if you want more good Schopenhauer translations you will have to wait.

P.S On Amazon it’s much cheaper than on the official cambridge website.

Since these translations may be rather expensive I have presented older but free online translations (which are absolutely trash and without scholarly support) for the disenfranchised.



There is no ordering below unless mentioned, you can read Kierkegaard before Nietzsche or whatever

Neo-Kantians and British Idealists

Not widely read today (I myself have not), just saying no one is stopping you from reading 

them. This is just here to remind you


Ignore everything you know about Nietzsche from pop culture (le god is dead XD) and actually read this guy (and before Nietzsche read Schopenhauer). Also there is no excuse for not buying the fucking WALTER KAUFMANN translations! You have no excuse not to buy Kaufmann translations as they are cheap and all other translations are trash (besides Hollingdale)!

Though I did find an amusing post on warosu regarding Kaufmann.

This is what happens when nazi shills try to do philosophy.

Secondary literature:

Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist ISBN: 0691019835

Again Kaufmann is the authority on Nietzsche scholarship, no excuses like that cuckhold above! Also have this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7M-cmNdiFuI

Nietzsche: A Philosophical Biography ISBN: 0393323803

Another excellent biography by the author of Schopenhauer and the Wild Years of Philosophy, Rüdiger Safranski.

Nietzsche (Arguments of the Philosophers) 0415090717

This book and the two below have a bit more philosophical depth and thus if you don’t want a biography you should buy these books. Schacht is a leading Nietzsche scholar and thus you're in good hands.

Nietzsche and Philosophy (Columbia Classics in Philosophy) 0231138776

Deleuze again but this time focuses on Nietzsche’s will to power and eternal recurrence. Again a great book for Nietzscheans and a would-be Deleuzian.

Nietzsche's Teaching: An Interpretation of "Thus Spoke Zarathustra" ISBN: 0300044305

Title says all really, a interpretation of Nietzsche’s most famous work Lampert a respected Scholar.

Nietzsche's works:

I shall do something a bit different here, please scroll all the way down below Nietzsche’s works for the reading order.

Untimely Meditations (Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy) ISBN: 0521585848

Kaufmann did not translate this work but Hollingdales work is still fine. Starting point for Nietzsche newbies.

The Gay Science: With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs ISBN: 0394719859

Sing along with your friends with this book of Nietzschean rhymes and songs!

The Portable Nietzsche (Portable Library) ISBN: 0140150625

>The Portable Nietzsche includes Kaufmann’s definitive translations of the complete and unabridged texts of Nietzsche’s four major works: Twilight of the Idols, The Antichrist, Nietzsche Contra Wagner and Thus Spoke Zarathustra.

Basic Writings of Nietzsche (Modern Library Classics) ISBN: 0679783393

.>Basic Writings of Nietzsche gathers the complete texts of five of Nietzsche’s most important works, from his first book to his last: The Birth of Tragedy, Beyond Good and Evil, On the Genealogy of Morals, The Case of Wagner, and Ecce Homo.

Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Revised Edition ISBN: 0803283687

No Kaufmann translations on this one either. It’s either this translation or Hollingdale 0521567041

Reading order:

Untimely Meditations

Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits

The Gay Science

The Birth of Tragedy

Beyond Good and Evil

Genealogy of Morals

Thus Spoke Zarathustra

The Case of Wagner

The Twilight of the Idols

The Antichrist

Ecce Homo

Nietzsche Contra Wagner

No no no you don’t read Thus Spoke Zarathustra first, reading Nietzsche is pretty straightforward as it’s mostly chronological. For starting Nietzsche one should always remind themselves of Nietzsche’s connection with Schopenhauer, a good way to do that is read “Schopenhauer as Educator” in Untimely Meditations

Further readings on Nietzsche:

The Will to Power ISBN: 0394704371

Based Kaufmann in collaboration with R. J. Hollingdale translate’s Nietzsche’s posthumous work. Life affirmation at it’s purest!

Nietzsche’s Philosophy: The Film.

A FILM?” you may ask, “WHY A FILM?”. This film is not for pleb consumerist moviegoers who like to watch the new superhero film but for connoisseurs of film as an art form . This film has no “action” and the film itself is taken in a mere 36 long shots so it will definitely be “boring” and “uninteresting” for the less artistically intelligent (I really tried to sound not elitist here but seriously this film is not for plebs but real Nietzscheans) . The film is an Hungarian film directed by Béla Tarr who has also made other great films such as Damnation and Satantango. And no, there is no one playing Nietzsche in this film (but that’s actually partially why the film is so good, it does not need a Nietzsche to be a Nietzschean film).

Seriously though just look on IMDB and Wikipedia I’ve spoon fed you enough info.

Remember when pirating to not use fucking YIFY torrents! They are the equivalent of Penguin Books.

For subtitles go to opensubtitles.org

At the request of some tripfag if one thinks art films are too “boring” and want some “action” one should watch Blade Runner. It’s a great Sci-Fi film so you should watch it regardless if you like Nietzsche or not!

Nietzsche’ Music

Did you know Nietzsche was a self-taught musician and composed music?

Unfortunately his music is rather esoteric and the recordings on CDs are hard to come by (overpriced) so here’s Nietzsche’s music for free:



First off, BUY THE HONG TRANSLATIONS! They beat Penguin anyday. Before reading Kierkegaard one should be aware of Hegel’s and Schelling’s influence (remember that Kierkegaard attended late Schelling’s lectures) so read them first. Also read the Bible.


To any fedora Atheists who love Sam Harris who refuse to read Kierkegaard fuck you and read him. A real Atheist can into theology.

Secondary literature:

S?ren Kierkegaard: A Biography ISBN: 0691127883

A whooping 800+ page biography on Kierkegaard, no more secondary literature after this!

Kierkegaard’s works (Read in order!!!):

Either/Or Part 1 & 2 ISBN: 0691020418 & 0691020426  

Despite writing earlier works Kierkegaard regards this work as his starting point of authorship, these early works outline what Kierkegaard is about quite nicely!

Fear and Trembling/Repetition ISBN: 0691020264

In Fear and Trembling Kierkegaard discusses the story of Abraham and the Anxiety present. In Repetition under the name Constantine Constantius playfully explores love and happiness, the passage of time and the importance of the passage of time. Here is a Hubert Dreyfus lecture on Fear and Trembling.


Works of Love ISBN: 0691059160

This work deals with love (duh!), the Christian conception of agape (?γ?πη) love in contrast with erotic love (?ρω?) or preferential love (φιλ?α) given to friends and family. 

The Sickness Unto Death ISBN: 0691020280

Dealing mainly with despair, Kierkegaard relates this to the concept of the original sin, the fall of man. Here’s a Dreyfus lecture on this work


Philosophical Fragments/Johannes Climacus ISBN: 0691020361

Written under the name Johannes Climacus this book is probably Kierkegaard’s most anti-Hegelian moment.

Further readings on Kierkegaard:

One should also take a look at the rest of the Hong translations for example

Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, Volume 1 & 2 ISBN: 0691020817


The Sequel to Philosophical Fragments these two books continue the attack on Hegel!


Henri Bergson

On the placement of Bergson here note that Bergson is today more engaged by Continental philosophers (like Deleuze) but one must remember.

So Bergson belongs here with Whitehead, though if you don’t want to read Bergson before Whitehead whatever. Recommended to read Bergson if you like Deleuze or vitalism.

Process Philosophy


Probably the last philosopher both (some) Continentals and (some) Analytics like, happened to write Principia Mathematica with Bertrand Russell but his ideas are also discussed by Continentals like Judith Butler (on one occasion), Graham Harman and Bruno Latour today. There are also contemporary strict Whiteheadian philosophers like Nicholas Rescher but I for one do not know anything about these people.


Sociology lite

I will just have the three sociologists who are widely accepted as the founders of sociology, this isnt a sociology guide but a Philosophy guide. In regards who to read first take your pick.

If you're an idiot asking why sociologists are on this guide well Sociology has influenced philosophers like Lukacs, Bourdieu, Habermas etc 

Supplemental readings:

Capitalism and Modern Social Theory An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber ISBN: 0521097851

Based Anthony Giddens (who is a very reputable sociologist himself) published this book which has become a classic in teaching Sociology. Giddens gives not a textbook explanation but a fully fledged commentary and analysis. 

Max Weber

Max Weber is widely considered one of the founders of sociology (along with Marx and Durkheim)

Besides his works on economy, society and government, Weber wrote a lot on the sociology of religion.

Secondary Literature:

Max Weber's Comparative-Historical Sociology ISBN: 0226423034

Kalberg is one of the best Weber scholars and has written this book as a companion to The Protestant Ethic. Read after Weber’s works.

Weber’s Works (READ IN ORDER!!!):

Economy and Society An Outline of Interpretive Sociology ISBN: 0520035003

Here Weber outlines his Weberian terminology and ideas (conceptual apparatuses) for the general public and thus is a great introduction to Weber. Note that this is in 2 volumes due to it’s massive size so make sure you receive two volumes when you buy it!

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism ISBN: 0199747253

Probably the most influential book in sociology, enough said.

Note that there are like a bajillion different editions and translations on this work, I have chosen the edition above because it is translated and edited by Kalberg (it also happens to be the most recent translation). Again avoid the Penguin edition.


Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study ISBN: 0804712832

The Elementary Forms of Religious Life ISBN: 0029079373

Don’t get the Oxford translation of this seminal work, it’s actually abridged!

Quick Metaphilosophy

There is a lot of bantz when one claims that the Continental/Analytic distinction is/is not nominalist or merely sociological/geopolitical and there is/is not any methodological distinction between “Analytic” and “Continental” Philosophy. For example some “Analytic” philosophers claim there is no “Continental Philosophy” because the parts of what comprise said Philosophy (Phenomenology, Existentialism, Structuralism etc) are “quite distinct” one cannot lump them all under the name “Continental Philosophy”. Meta-philosophical books from both the Continental and Analytic sides are below. Divide Is real.







Don’t be fooled by the title of the book by Simon Critchley, It really is not a introduction but a sneaky Meta-philosophical book (but it also explains the history of Continental Philosophy starting from Kant). Also mind Pippin’s book as it is undecipherable (Hegelian, jokes!) .






Continental Philosophy:


Analytic Philosophy:


Moved to their own google docs for file size reasons

Marxist non-philosophers will go under the Marxism section but Marxist philosophers (like Zizek) will go to their respective Continental/Analytic place.

I have placed Phil. of Science right under Analytic Philosophy as Phil. of Science is almost completely dominated by the Analytic tradition, BUT there are some exceptions such as Canguilhem and Bachelard.

The concept of the political.

Then Theory of the Constitution.

Then Political Theology.

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (hegel)

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