Polymorphamory – The Love of Changing Form

Polymorphamory – 

The Love of Changing Form

A guide to shapeshifting

Quick links to sections:


Codes used in the guide

What you get (when you shapeshift)

Alter Self

Beast Shape (I, II, III, IV)

Magical Beast Shape

Vermin Shape (I, II)

Plant Shape (I, II, III)

Giant Form (I, II)

Monstrous Physique (I, II, III, IV)

Fae Form (I, II, III, IV)

Undead Anatomy (I, II, III, IV)

Form of the Dragon (I, II, III)

Elemental Body (I, II, III, IV)

Comparison of equivalent shapeshift spells

Other Polymorphing Spells


Archetypes and Class Options

Magic Items


Pathfinder’s approach to shapeshifting greatly simplifies things from a DMs point of view, and stops it from becoming overpowered, by limiting you to a specific set of abilities you can gain from it. However, whilst you don’t have completely different stats for each form, it’s still fairly complicated on the player’s side, as you still need to find forms with the abilities you want.

This guide is designed to help with that; I’ve gone through all of the shapeshifting spells, and picked out the most useful forms for them, both those with the best attacks, but also those with handy utility capabilities. Obviously, one of the useful capabilities of shapeshifting is passing yourself as a particular type of creature, but because that’s specific to the moment and game you need it for, I can’t really cover it here

For the moment, I am largely ignoring aquatic/swimming creatures, because whilst those capabilities are very useful when you really need them, most of the time you don’t. I have noted which forms (chosen for their other capabilities) have swim speeds. Later, I intend to do an aquatic subsection, going through all the watery options.

With each form I’ve included a quick description of its capabilities, what it’s good for, if it’s a particularly good combat form, and a link to it on d20pfsrd.com. I’ve not included 3rd party content, but I have included monsters from the adventure paths and other Paizo but non-core content. 

The senses available to the form are indicated after my discussion of it with these codes (though it’s the spells that dictate which you have available):

LLV = Low Light Vision

Sc = Scent

DV# = Darkvision, # = range

BS# = Blindsense, # = range

BSi# = Blindight, # = range (few or no spells give this, but it could be described as a lesser form of Blindsense, and thus give you that)

TS# = Tremorsense, # = range

LS# = Lifesense, # = range (the description of the ability states lifesense is 60ft, but some creatures have a distance listed with it)

SiD = See in Darkness

AAV = All Around Vision

And next to that, these codes specify where it’s from:

A few things have multiple codes, because they started in an Adventure Path, then got rolled into a later Bestiary.

B – Bestiary

B2 – Bestiary 2

B3 – Bestiary 3

B4 – Bestiary 4

B5 – Bestiary 5

B6 – Bestiary 6 

UM – Ultimate Magic

UW – Ultimate Wilderness

MA – Mythic Adventures (Note: Your GM may go "Ha, ha, ha… no!" to mythic forms.

AP30 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #30: The Twice-Damned Prince

AP34 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #34: Blood for Blood

AP36 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #36: Sound of a Thousand Screams

AP37 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #37: Souls for Smuggler’s Shiv

AP40 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #40: Vaults of Madness

AP46 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #46: Wake of the Watcher

AP48 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #48: Shadows of Gallowspire

AP54 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #54: The Empty Throne

AP55 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #55: The Wormwood Mutiny

AP56 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #56: Raiders of the Fever Sea 

AP57 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #57: Tempest Rising

AP58 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #57: Island of Empty Eyes

AP59 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #59: The Price of Infamy

AP69 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #69: Maiden, Mother, Crone

AP81 – Pathfinder Adventure Path #81: Shifting Sands

RoRl – Pathfinder Adventure Path: Rise of the Runelords Anniversary Edition

ISWG –  Pathfinder Campaign Setting: The Inner Sea World Guide

ISB –  Pathfinder Campaign Setting: Inner Sea Bestiary

IotS – Pathfinder Campaign Setting: Isles of the Shackles

LotLK – Pathfinder Campaign Setting: Lands of the Linnorm Kings

ABF – Pathfinder Campaign Setting: Andoran, Birthplace of Freedom 

What you get

When you take a form, you get several things:

  • Adjustments to any or all strength, dexterity , constitution, and natural armour. Generally, smaller forms get dexterity, larger get Strength and Constitution, everyone gets natural armour but larger gets more. More magical forms tend to get more armour.

  • The base land speed of the form – some are pretty fast.

  • The natural attacks of the form. This is one of the big dividers between forms in terms of usefulness – a form with two claws, a bite, and a gore rather beats one with one or two attacks. You also get the reach of these attacks, which is usually size-based, but there’s some variability, and a few forms have one or several attacks with longer reach than the rest.

  • Each shapeshifting spell comes with a list of abilities it can grant. It only grants those abilities if the form you are taking has that ability. If the for you are taking has a better version of the same ability as the one the spell is granting (e.g. form gives you Fly 90 (Good), and the spell can only give you Fly 60 (Average). If the form gives you a worse version of the same ability the spell grants, you get the form’s version. If it’s a variable ability, and the spell doesn’t constrain what it can do, you get the full effects – this means when you get access to the Poison special ability, you can use some forms with pretty nasty poison.

  • You look like the form. Specifically, you get a +10 bonus to disguise checks to do so. This is presumably in case someone tries to work out if the cat that just walked in is in fact not a cat (or tries to recognise you from your feline-form gait or mewing). But you also have the advantage that, if you’re in a place a cat might be, then people are unlikely to be suspicious, and therefore will not roll spot against you.

One thing to remember is that any abilities you gain which have a DC (principally Poison and trample, but also other things like web) have the DC of the spell, not the DC the animal would have. This reduces the DC on some of the nastier animals, but is also means that creatures with a very easy to pass DC can become far more deadly in the hands of a high level caster — tiny vipers are a good example of this.

You can also lose some things from it — to quote the polymorph subschool:

'you lose all extraordinary and supernatural abilities that depend on your original form (such as keen senses, scent, and darkvision), as well as any natural attacks and movement types possessed by your original form. You also lose any class features that depend upon form…'

So, anything with a physical source, rather than 'this race is practiced at this' goes when you shift. 


The spell

This one is likely to be taken primarily for disguise. But there are still some forms better than others here.

— Small Humanoid

Charau-Ka — Best senses (darkvision, low light vision, and scent), bite in addition to weapon attacks. [DV60,LLV,Sc | AP40/ISWG]

— Medium Humanoid

Lizardfolk — Claw and bite, swim. [| B]

Troglodyte — Two claws and a bite. [DV90 | B]

Sasquatch — one of the faster humanoids, good senses [DV90, LLV, Sc | B3]

Bugbear — Main advantage is that you’re more likely to be ‘familiar’ with it, if you’re a druid using Thousand shapes. Reasonable senses. [DV60, Sc | B]

Adlet — Weapon attacks plus a bite, is a scary wolf-man. [LLV, Sc | B3]


The spell

The ‘base’ shapeshift set of spells, such as there is one, and the mainstay of Druid Wildshaping. The utility abilities are largely confined to senses and movement speed/mode, and barring aquatic creatures, the best sensory abilities are fairly rare until you get Magical Beasts (which druids lack). 


Here the abilities you get are low rates of the non-basic moves, bar burrow, and senses. Theoretically you can get darkvision from this, but nothing you can turn into has that. Combat-wise this level is about how many and how good attacks it has, and perhaps its speed. The stat mods at this level are pretty low. Small shapes do get you +4 stealth, which can make something of a difference at lower levels.

— Medium Animal

Deinonychus — this dinosaur has a speed of 60 and 4 attacks, probably the best combat form for Beast Shape I. [LLV,Sc | B2]

Leopard — three attacks, climb speed, swim speed; lots of flexibility. [LLV,Sc | B]

Dimorphodon — One of two medium Animal flyers. Eagle is probably a better bet for flying most of the time though, because it has more attacks. [LLV, Sc | AP37]

Giant Raven — Another Medium flyer option. [LLV | B6]

— Small Animal

Eagle — good flyer with three attacks, and small, which can help with stealth [LLV | B]

Dog — for when you don’t want to be noticed. Generally less good than a cat, due to cats prowling on their own more often, but still handy. LLV,Sc | B]

Velociraptor — Fast, three attacks. Not as good as Deinoychus, but for stealth, in confined spaces, or if you otherwise want to be small, your best combat form at this level. [LLV,Sc | B4]

Seal – Small swimmer with a slow landspeed. Not aquatic.  [LLV | UW]


This is where it starts to get good. The ability mods and natural armour is getting more noticeable, and you can now grab, trip, and pounce. You don’t have rake, which slightly reduces the usefulness of grab, but it’s still pretty handy. And pounce means so many more full attacks when you can get three to five attacks, so it’s generally worth taking a form with that. Alternate movement speeds are now pretty fast, stealth bonus is now +8.

— Large Animal

Dire Tiger — best combat form for this level; three attacks, all with grab, fairly big damage dice, and pounce, it’s also reasonably fast. [LLV,Sc | B]

Dire Hyena — Slightly faster than the tiger, and one of the few trippers at this level, one big bite attack with 10ft reach. [LLV,Sc | B]

Dire Ape — Three attacks with 10ft reach, climb, and humanoid enough to more easily open doors. [LLV,Sc | B]

Giant Vulture — Best large flyer. [LLV,Sc | B3]

Horse — Another one for blending in; could be good for occasions where only one party member is allowed to attend, or if you just need to carry someone somewhere. [LLV,Sc | B]

Narwhal – good swim (fastest Large swimmer). Not great attacks. No landspeed, not Aquatic. [LLV, BSi120 | B]

Giant Octopus — Nine attacks, eight of them are secondary 20ft grabbing tentacles (albeit with low damage), constrict. Aquatic, has a landspeed. [LLV | B]

Giant Moray Eel — Okay bite, grab, Aquatic, Swim, no landspeed. [LLV, Sc | B]

— Medium Animal

Deinonychus — still useful at this level for those occasions where you don’t have space to go large, as Beast Shape II gives it Pounce which is nice with four attacks.  [LLV,Sc | B2]

Leopard — Again, still has uses at this level with pounce and grab on its bite. [LLV,Sc | B]

Giant Raven — Flying speed goes up to 50ft. [LLV | B6]

— Small Animal

Seal – Swim speed goes up to 60  [LLV | AP55 & UW]

— Tiny Animal

Hawk — fast flyer with the stealth benefits of the Tiny size [LLV | B]

Rhamphorhynchus — slower than the Hawk, but has good maneuverability, which can be useful sometimes. [LLV,Sc | AP37]

Fox — fastest land speed on a tiny creature, for when you want to sneak [LLV,Sc | B3]

Cat — Three attacks, the bane of commoners! Mostly included for when you want to blend in — in urban environments cats get lots of places, and generally get away with doing so. [LLV,Sc | B]

Raven — Another good one for not being noticed, with the added advantages of flight and being seen both in the middle of the wilderness and in towns and cities [LLV | B]

Rat — Yet another form for blending in, albeit one that may get bad responses when seen, particularly inside. But not “You’re a druid/adventurer” responses, hopefully. Can also swim. [LLV,Sc | B]

Platypus — Tiny fast swimmer. Also, you’re a platypus! You might be able to argue Electro location as giving you Underwater Blindsense at Beast Shape III [LLV | B4 & UW]

Blue Ringed Octopus – Tiny animal swimmer with two attacks, one with grab, gains Jet and Poison later.  Aquatic, has a 20ft land speed. [LLV | UM]


Stat bonuses go up again, the Huge animals are getting 15 foot reach most of the time too. More unusual attack forms arrive — trample, web, and poison (the latter of which is massively variable in terms of how strong/useful it is, but there are some impressive options out there). Burrow and Blindsense finally arrive as movement and sensory options respectively. Rake and constrict also appear here, making grab that much more useful.

This is also the first level that you can get Magical Beast forms (if you’re not a wildshaping Druid). They have the more unusual senses, and some useful special abilities, and get both better stat raises and lower stat reductions than the equivalent animals. But, for direct damage capabilities, you’re probably best served by the Huge animals.

— Medium Animal

Leopard — This level it gets rake to go along with the pounce and grab; there's certainly better combat forms out there, but if you need to be medium, then the Leopard is pretty good. [LLV,Sc | B]

Dimorphodon — A flying poisoner (Strength, 1 save). Not the best thing around, but with flyby attack to dart in and out, could be okay. [LLV,Sc | B4]

Squid – gains a fairly fast jet. [LLV | B]

— Small Animal

Nothing particularly great at this level

— Tiny Animal

Viper — Assassination form, combining tinyness and Con poison. Also has a Climb and Swim speeds for getting wherever your target is. Remember the DC of your poison is that of the spell you’ve cast (or the spell you’re using the effects of with Wildshape), so the DC on the poison of this is a fairly respectable 15+casting stat modifier.  [LLV,Sc | B]

Blue Ringed Octopus – Gains Jet and Poison. [LLV | UM]

— Large Animal

Dire Tiger is still probably your best fight form at this level + size. [LLV,Sc | B]

Dire Bat — Okay flight ability and Blindsense. [BS40 | B]

Arsinoitherium — one big attack, but here because of its trample ability, which is usable at this level. [LLV, Sc | B2]

Emperor Cobra — a big bite and 1d3 con damage poison requiring two consecutive saves to stop it. And Climb+Swim. [LLV,Sc | B2]

Narwhal – Goes up to 80 foot swim speed, potentially gains Blindsense. [LLV, BSi120 | B]

Giant Octopus — Nine attacks, eight of them are secondary 20ft grabbing tentacles (albeit with low damage), constrict. Aquatic, has a landspeed. [LLV | B]

— Diminutive Animal

Bat — A diminutive flyer with blindsense; if you need to sneak in somewhere, and need to keep an eye on things as you’re doing so, this is a pretty good choice. [LLV,BS20 | B]

Hedgehog — On the off chance you want an unobtrusive creature with a land speed, as the bat’s is only 5ft. [LLV | UM]

— Huge Animal

Allosaurus — a big bite with grab, two claws, pounce and rake  [LLV,Sc | B2]

Quetzalcoatlus — Best huge flyer, three attacks.  [LLV,Sc | AP37/B6]

Behemoth Hippopotamus — One of the fastest huge creatures, one big bite with grab. Pretty good with Vital Strike. Also, you get to kill your enemies as a hippo[LLV | B2]

Elasmotherium — Lovely 6d6 Horn attack, plus Trample as a side benefit. Probably the best Vital Striker now  [LLV, Sc | B6] 

Mastodon — Best trample damage. Two reasonably big attacks.  [LLV,Sc | B]

Megalania — Grab on bite, plus a fairly good dex poison, swim.  [LLV,Sc | B3]

Megatherium — Giant sloth with two tripping claws.  [LLV,Sc | B2]

Frog Father — 30ft grabbing Tongue attack. Not great other than that, but good for bringing someone into the middle of the party, potentially nice with multi-change uses of spells  [LLV,Sc | B5] 

Cameroceras — A fast jetter with two big damage attacks, Aquatic (poor land speed).  [LLV, Sc | B5

Dunkleosteus — Decent swim speed and a 3 dice bite – good for Vital Strike. Aquatic, No land speed.  [AQ, LLV | AP56/B6] 

Orca – 2d6 bite, 80ft swim (no land speed). Not aquatic. Blindsight for if that counts as a lesser form of Blindsense. [LLV, BSi120 | B]

Megalania – Big-ish bite, grab, dexterity poison, Swim speed. [LLV, Sc | B3]

Giant Squid — Good swim, very fast Jet, 3 attacks, two long reach, one of those that's 4d6 with Grab, Constrict. Aquatic, no landspeed. [LLV | B]

Giant Sea Snake — One big bite with Dexterity plus Constitution Poison, Swim and Climb on top of landspeed. [LLV | PCS:IotS]

— Medium Magical Beast

Uraeus – Two bites, or (given Breath Weapon isn't limiting in when the specific creature gives extra abilities), two breath weapons and a bite. Poison is blinding and paralysing poison, Breath Weapon is a line of automatic one round blindness, then the poison on top of that. And it's got flight and climb too. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B5] 

Galvo — Three attacks (two with 10ft reach), blindsense, darkvision, swim; not the best fighter, but lots of flexibility. Also, looks *damn* freaky – you’re made up of loads of squirming eels. Not sure if you get the electricity damage on its attacks. [BS60, DV60, LLV B4 & AP59]

Aranea — first thing that gets you web, also has poison, darkvision, and a climb speed. 

[DV60, LLV | B2]

Peryton — Best flyer at 60ft (good), three attacks. [DV60, LLV | B2]

Pard — Very fast (120 ft), and three attacks, albeit two secondary. Take it for the speed. [DV60, LLV, Sc B4]

Juvenile Seps – A magical snake, with a fairly nasty poison, albeit the liquefaction on death is a separate quality you don’t get, I think. The bite and the poison aren’t quite as good as the Emperor Cobra’s, so this is probably one for when you need to be medium, or if you really don’t want any dexterity penalty.  [DV60, LLV, Sc B4]


Sha – High bite damage for a medium creature, with trip; good for Vital Strike if you need to be medium. [DV60, LLV | B5]

— Small Magical Beast

Aurumvorax — Five attacks, all with grab, four rakes, burrow. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B2]

Rat King — Not quite as good as the Aurumvorax, but is still 5 primary bite attacks, and a creepy ‘many rats tangled together’ look.  [DV60, LLV | B4]

Witchcrow – Good if you want the stats of a Small Magical Beast with flight. [DV60, LLV | B5]


The last one. Because the animals have already gained pretty much all the abilities they’re going to get, this level is mostly about the magical beasts. Again, their stat bonuses are better with fewer penalties than the equivalent animals, and +8 dexterity plus +8 stealth makes tiny magical beasts pretty good at sneaking in places. 

A few new abilities, including rend, but the two big things here are that you get resistance 20 to any element your form has immunity or resistance to, albeit you also get their elemental vulnerabilities, and you get breath weapons.

— Diminutive, Tiny, Small, & Medium Animals

The previous stuff, but they don’t gain new abilities from this spell

— Large Animal

Dire Ape — This gains Rend at this level. Still probably not the best combat option (especially as Large magical beasts are now available) but its humanoid shape has uses. [LLV,Sc | B]

— Huge Animal

Megatherium — Also gains rend at this level. [LLV,Sc | B2]

— Medium Magical Beast

Galvo — It’s immune to electricity, so you get Resist 20 of that at this level. 

[BS60, DV60, LLV | B4 & AP59]

Uraeus – Gains fire resisance 10.  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B5] 

Bunyip – Reasonably nice swim speed, but you take this for a Roar that panics (though it may affect your allies too). [DV60, LLV, Sc | B2] 

— Small Magical Beast

Shocker Lizard — Not particularly great, but it’s a small creature with climb and swim, and it gives you electricity resistance, should you find yourself needing that [DV60, LLV | B]

— Tiny Magical Beast

Stirge — Tiny flyer. Good if you want the stealthiness and +8 dex of a Tiny Magical Beast. Not that great otherwise.  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B]

Coral Capuchin – Awful in combat, but it flies, climbs, and swims, so a good infiltrator when combined with stats and stealth of the Tiny Magical Beast. [DV60, LLV  | AP58]

— Large Magical Beast

Chimera — Five attacks and breath weapon (with a variety of options for its effects), plus flight make this probably the best combat form of this set. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B]

Shedu — A close second on the combat side, also has five attacks (though four are secondary), better flight, trample, and resistance to fire and electricity. [DV60, LLV  | B3]

Dragon Horse — One of the best flyers, longer range darkvision than most, two attacks with 10ft reach and a breath weapon that can do damage, create mist, or a blast of wind (useful for getting rid of Cloudkill and similar) [DV120, LLV  | B3]

Slepnir – Reasonably fast, five attacks (not great damage), but this is here because it has a  breath weapon that's 30 foot cone of Prismatic Spray, albeit only three times a day. Also has Electricity and Cold resistance. [DV60, LLV | B3]

Kirin — As good a flyer as the Dragon Horse, has more normal darkvision but also has scent, three attacks, but only 5ft reach. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B3]

Death Worm — Reasonable bite attack and a 2 save Con poison, fairly high damage breath weapon, gives you resistance to acid and electricity. Utility-wise, it has tremorsense and burrow. [DV60, LLV, TS60 | B2]

Mobat — Long range blindsense, okay flight, one attack. [BS120, LLV | B2]

Phase Spider — Bite attack with grab and a fairly strong con poison – eight rounds rather than the usual six, and two saves. Climb speed. [DV60, LLV | B]

Spider Eater — Flight, four attacks, paralysis poison. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B3]

Gorgon — Petrification breath, a second breath makes it permanent, three attacks (though two are secondary)  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B]

Kamadan — Four attacks (one secondary), pounce, sleep breath weapon. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B3]

Catoblepas — Four attacks (two secondary), 15ft reach. 1d6 Con damage, three saves poison breath weapon – it’s described as both ‘breath weapon’ and ‘poison breath’ so it’s not clear whether you get this ability. [DV60, LLV | B]

Manticore — Ranged attack of four spikes as a standard action (limited use per day though), flight, three attacks. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B]

Dragonne — Roar which fatigues its targets, and could be stacked to exhaust. Three attacks, pounce, flight. Could be quite good versus opponents without ranged attacks – roar a few times to leave most of them exhausted, before you and the party attacks. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B3]

Androsphinx — Roar usable three times a day with different effects each time (reasonable duration fear, then short duration paralysis, then damage, knockdown and medium duration strength penalty). Pounce, two claw attacks with grab, rake, flight. Good if you want the effects of one of its roars. [DV60, LLV | B]

Seaweed Siren — A big bite attack, swim speed, and trample, plus resistance to fire and sonic. But the main draw here is the three primary attack, high damage sonic beams, which I’m assuming you should get access to. However your GM may say no, or dislike the fact that you not picking up its subtype or water dependency means you can go on land with it fine. [DV60, LLV | B4]

Goezspall — Four okay natural attacks, rend, climb and swim… but you're here for the fact that it has fire, cold, acid, electricity and sonic Resistance. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B6]

Ahool — Flyer with four atttacks, one with Grab, two with reach, and Rend. Chimera still probably better, but this has its uses. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B5]

Cytillipede – One 2d6 attack, and Climb speed, but this is here because it has a poison that does Memory Lapse on top of Dexterity Damage. [DV60 | B5]

Peuchen – Flight, a bite with grab with a Dexterity poison (good if you want to disable, not kill) plus Constrict. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B5] 

Giant Muckdweller – here for its 60ft Swim; likely more as a form you take to get good stats whilst swimming, or if using Multimorph or Altered Shifting to change forms within a single spell. [DV, LLV | B5]


Huge to diminutive Magical Beasts. Pretty high stat bonuses; better Strength/Dexterity and Natural Armour bonuses than the other level 7 spells, but less/no bonuses to other stats, and some penalties. Some nice new abilities too — Fast Healing, is probably the best because who doesn't like self-healing, Blindsight is pretty nice in the right situation, as are elemental and poison resistances.

The other new abilities are: blood frenzy, blood drain, see in darkness, hold breath, powerful charge, pull and no breath

I'm starting with listing the two new sizes, but this does allow for new abilities at the other sizes (so the rest of the entries are new abilities for Beast Shape III or IV options, or new things where their abilities here seem worth it). 

If you're going Multimorph or similar, it's worth noting that this spell doesn't let you turn into Animals, only Magical Beasts, so it's less good for looking subtle (though there are a few Magical Beasts that look like ordinary animals, so they may be useful there).

— Huge Magical Beast

BehirBreath Weapon, albeit a short line and only 7d6 damage. 2d6 bite with a Grab. Constrict and six Rakes – pretty nice grappler form. [DV60, LLV | B]

Hydra – Fast Healing, five attacks with Pounce is quite nice, albeit not that fast (though it can swim). You could make arguments for the more-headed versions, but a wise GM will turn you down. Cryohydras and Pyrohydras are similarly edge cases, if allowed they give you a whole load of breath weapons, 20 resist of one of Fire and Cold, and vulnerability to the other. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B]

Mythic Hydra – Technically a separate monster, thus can be turned into if GM allows. Actual difference is two extra attacks and faster movement speed. [DV60, LLV, Sc | MA]

Bulette – Three nice attacks, burrow, Tremorsense. [DV60, LLV, Sc, TS60 | B]

Frost Worm – One big 4d6+ 4d10 cold attack, nice for Vital Strike (though I'd guess the Cold is would be treated like a weapon bonus and not multiplied. Breath Weapon at damage cap for this form, though only once an hour. Slow burrow. [DV60, LLV | B2]

Thrasfyr – Seven primary attacks with okay damage, big area Breath Weapon at damage cap, resist Fire, Sonic and Electricty (though vulnerable to cold), and has Powerful Charge. You don't get the attack from its chains. Regeneration if your GM rules Fast Healing as a lesser form of that.  [DV60, LLV | B2]

Akhlut – another one with a big attack (4d8+4d6 Cold) nice for Vital Strike. Also has good Swim speed and Hold Breath. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B3]

Star Monarch – Has an inherent Nonlethal attack which you might occasionally want? And is a Huge flying Magical Beast with No Breath, which could be what you want. Two attacks with grab, one with 15 foot reach (the non-lethal one), and four Rakes. [DV60, LLV | ISB]

Kokogiak (Not on d20pfsrd): Seven primary attacks, one with 20ft Reach and Pull to bring opponents within reach of the other six. Cold resistance. The 'Blizzard Breath' that does Cold damage + save or Fatigued isn't the ability type 'Breath Weapon', but it does then immediately describe itself as 'A kokogiak’s breath weapon…' — I probably wouldn't allow it, but your GM might. [DV60, LLV | AP69]

Ythrak – Huger flyer with three attacks, blindsight and Resist Sonic. Sonic Lance is listed as a natural attack so you might get that, but it's also under the abilities, so you probably don't. [BSi120 | B4]

Xanthos – four attacks, cold, electricity and fire resistance, longer than normal darkvision (though the spell only gives you 90 of its 120), and Hold Breath. Technically also good for carrying friends if you have a howdah sitting around… [DV120, LLV | B4]

Myrmecoleon – Mythic, so GM may say no. But not actually particularly overpowered. One big attack with Grab, Constrict and Blood Drain. Pure damage, the six rakes of the Behir probably win best grappler, but this is still nice. Has Climb and Burrow speeds, and Trample. [DV60, LLV | B4]

Seps – Giant Armoured Snake! Who doesn't  love that? 3d8 bite with a poison that does Constitution drain and Acid damage for a long time. Acid and Poison Resistance [DV60, LLV, Sc | B4]

Amarok – Other options are generally better, but this has a big bite with both grab and trip. Also has See In Darkness [DV60, LLV, Sc, SiD | B5] 

Leng Spider – Fast Healing, Cold, Sonic, and Poison Resistance, Climb, bite with a poison that does 1d4 Con plus confusion. [DV60, TS60, LLV | B2]

— Diminutive Magical Beast

There is literally one non-third party magical beast. It's not the best, but it's here if you want its stats (which work out as an effective +17 to stealth)

Pipefox – Move, Climb, and a low damage bite. [DV60, LLV | B4]

— Large Magical Beast

Slepnir – Gains Powerful Charge  [DV60, LLV | B3]

Skrik Nettle – Flying jellyfish with Blindsight and a poison that makes people uncontrollably levitate up into the air. [BSi50 | AP36]

Devilfish – decent Swimmer with see in darkness – good for the darkness of the deeps. [LLV, SiD | B2]

Kirin — Very fast flyer with Powerful chage [DV60, LLV, Sc | B3]

Shalkeshka – Burrow, three attacks, one with grab. Two rakes, Tremorsense, and No Breath [DV60, TS90, LLV, Sc | AP81]

Shedu — Gains Fast Healing  [DV60, LLV  | B3]

High Girallon (aka Angazhani) – Good senses, bunch of attacks (claws with Rend, up to four different weapon hands, or a mixture of the two), acid, cold, fire and poison resistances. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B5] 

— Medium Magical Beast

Uraeus – Gains poison resistance [DV60, LLV, Sc | B5] 

Aurumvorax — Gains poison resistance. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B2]

— Tiny Magical Beast

Stirge — Gains blood drain – slightly better in a fight.  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B]

Sin Seeker – Tiny magical beast with Blindsight – pretty good spy in dark situations. [BSi50, LLV, Sc | B3]

Ceru – Fast Healing and a bonus to poison saves on a tiny creature with a crap (though Constitution Poison) bite. Good for multimorph going "I need to survive!" [DV60, LLV | ISB


The spell

Pretty similar to Beast Shape, apart from getting a bonus versus mind affecting, slightly more armour, a few extra abilities, and the fact that there are more creatures with the unusual senses here. It’s also a spell level higher than beast shape for the equivalent(ish) levels, except for the classes that don’t get beast shape (Witch and Druid)


Not many abilities here, so again it’s mostly about speed and nuber of attacks.

— Small Vermin

Giant Solifugid — Three attacks, climb speed. [DV60| B2]

Nymph Water Strider — If you want a small flyer from this spell, then here’s one, albeit the flying’s not great. Three low damage attacks. [DV60 TS60| B4]

— Medium Vermin

Cave Scorpion — Three attacks (lower damage than some of the others), fast. Probably the best combat form at this level. [DV60, TS60 | B2]

Common Eurypterid — Three attacks, one with 10ft reach [LLV, TS30 | B6/AP37]

Giant Dragonfly — One big attack with 10ft reach, flight. [DV60| B2] 

Great Diadem Urchin — Three attacks, at higher damage than most of the rest of the forms at this level, but very slow. [LLV, TS30, Sc | AP56]

Xenopterid — Gets much better with Vermin Shape 2, but it’s still a flyer with three attacks. Plus, you get to disguise yourself as an insect that disguises itself as a person. Turnabout is fair play! [DV60| B4] 

Giant Mantis Shrimp – Two 2d6 attacks is not bad at Medium. [DV60| B5]

Crimson Jellyfish – Two attacks, 10ft reach, one with grab, the other a touch attack with poison, and it has Blood Drain too. [DV60| B6]


Poison, grab, tremorsense and a few other things arrive here, making some of the creatures with those good options, and buffing some of the previous options.

— Small Vermin

Giant Tick — Grab, blood drain, climb

— Medium Vermin

Cave Scorpion — Gains tremorsense and a strength poison. [DV60, TS60 | B2]

Giant Dragonfly — Flight improves, gains grab [DV60| B2] 

Great Diadem Urchin — Gains a con damage + stun poison — pretty strong, if still damn slow. [LLV, TS30, Sc | AP56]

Giant Spider — Web, attack with Strength poison, climb, tremorsense. [DV60, TS60 | B] 

Giant Crab — Two claws with grab, constrict, swim. [DV60| B] 

Xenopterid — At this level it gains two grabs, a Dexterity poison, and blood drain.[DV60| B4] 

— Large Vermin

Giant Scorpion — Two grabs, constrict, poisonous sting, fairly fast, Tremorsense [DV60, TS60 | B]

Bluetip Eurypterid — Two claws, sting with a fairly strong poison and longer reach, pounce, tremorsense, swim. [LLV, TS30 | AP37]

Giant Mantis — Climb, fly, two claws, 20ft reach as a Standard Action attack (with +4 bonus to hit). [DV60 | B]

Giant Stag Beetle — One big attack, trample [DV60 | B]

Knight Ant – less attacks than scorpion but stronger poison [DV60, TS60, Sc | B5]

Blood Caterpillar – Big damage primary attack, okay poison on a secondary attack, web. [DV60 | B5]

Spear Sea Urchin – Pair of attacks both Melee and Ranged, with poison that does Strength Damage and nauseates. [LLV, TS30 | B5]

Belostomatid – Three reach attacks, two with grab, and it can both fly and swim. Good senses. [DV60, TS60| B6]

Giant Starfish – Slow, but four attacks (though you don't get the stomach/fast swallow ability). [DV60, TS3| B6]


The Spell

With Plant Shape you get better constitution than the other spells gave you and whilst there are less abilities you’re getting here, there are some quite powerful abilities here.


Gains construct, grab, and poison. Alas, there’s little that actually gets those abilities here.

— Small Plant

Calathgar — Three attacks, two with 10ft reach, one with cold damage on it (not sure if you get that; it’s not called out as a specific ability). [DV30, LLV, Sc | AP34]

— Medium Plant

Green Man — it's a CR 26 creature with DR/epic and slashing and regeneration only defeated by Mythic or Deific, so outside of Mythic Adventures, your GM may exclude it. If they don't, eight attacks (six with 30ft reach and grab).  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B6]

Fungus Queen — Six attacks, four with grab (albeit not huge damage), constrict. Also roughly humanoid, so arguably could be Disguise Self'd as such. [DV60, LLV | ISB & B6]

Mi-Go — Four claws all with grab. [LLV, BS30 | B4 & AP46]

Cerebric Fungus — three attacks, two with 15ft reach. [DV60, LLV | B3]

Weedwhip — pretty slow, but three attacks with 15ft reach, and a nausea poison. Good for shutting down enemies, particularly if you want to take them alive or somesuch.  [LLV, BS30 | B4]

Psychepore – Three attacks, close or ranged, doing 1d3, two saves wisdom poison. You probably don't get the Confusion effect as it's named under a separate effect. Good for stacking against low wisdom enemies to drop. [DV60, LLV  | B5]


Gains resistance to elements at this level, which there is a couple of decent options with. And a couple good large options too.

— Small Plant

Nothing particularly great at this level

— Medium Plant

Green Man — Electricity resistance.  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B6]

Fungus Queen – Gains acid and cold resistance.

Mi-Go — Gains cold, electricity and fire resistance. [LLV, BS30 | AP46]

Cerebric Fungus — Gets some cold resistance. [DV60, LLV | B3]

— Large Plant

Mosslord — Four attacks with okay damage, fire and electricity resistance. [DV60 | B6]

Viper Vine — Five attacks, four secondary with 20ft reach & grab, constrict, acid resist. Slow though. [ LLV, TS60 | B2]

Shambling Mound — Two reasonably big attacks with grab, constrict, fire and electricity resist. [DV60, LLV | B]

Stranglereed – Three attacks, two with grab, very slow swim. Good for impersonating a bunch of reeds, though alas you don't get the Freeze ability, not exceptional otherwise. [LLV | B5]


Huge plants become possible, but also regeneration and damage resistance are available here, both of which are damn handy. Somewhat restricted in options that actually have them unfortunately.

— Small Plant

Nothing particularly great

— Medium Plant

Green Man — DR 15/epic and slashing and regeneration Deific and Mythic, if your GM allows you to have it.  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B6]

Fungus Queen – gains DR Cold Iron or Good. [DV60, LLV | – & B6]

Myceloid — Two claws, damage resistance, several elemental resistances, electricity vulnerability. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B3]

Living Topiary — Two attacks, but here mostly because it gets Damage resistance. Also, you’re a walking sculpted hedge. Myceloid is better though  [DV60, LLV | B4]

— Large Plant

Mosslord — Gains DR 15/Magic and Slashing, and Regeneration 5. [DV60 | B6]

Sargassum Fiend — Two slams with grab, constrict, damage resistance, cold resistance, swim, climb [BS60, TS120  | B3]

Nirento — Two attacks with 15ft reach, grab and trip, damage resistance, sonic resist. [LLV, BS60 | IotS]

— Huge Plant

Giant Flytrap — Four attacks with grab, resist acid. [LLV, TS60 | B]

Treant — two big slams, trample Damage resistance. Fire vulnerability. [LLV | B]

Quickwood — Four attacks, 60ft reach on three of them. [DV60, LLV | B2]

Tendriculous — Two attacks, regeneration, immune to acid  [LLV| B2]


The spell

Importantly, this form allows you to retain your armour and weapons; most or all of the forms have slams or claws, but you can use your own weapons, and said weapons expand with you, increasing their damage and increasing what you can hit with Reach weapons. These make this a pretty good option for hitty Alchemists; you get quite good stat boosts, and the various troll options give you three attacks plus rend and regeneration.


Regeneration and rend are the big things here, and the fact trolls get both make them the best option in their various variations. Rock throwing and catching is the main advantage of true giants, if you need a ranged option. You gain resistance if your form has resistance or immunity (and gain vulnerability if they do), which is one of the main distinguishing difference between the forms here.

— Large Giant

Rock Troll — Best combat form at this level, roughly the same as normal troll, but swaps fire for sonic in terms of regeneration defeating, and fire is far more common (and expected to be used against trolls). [DV60, LLV, Sc | B2]

Desert Giant — Fastest Giant, plus fire resistance (without the cold vulnerability that Fire Giants have) and rock throwing.  [LLV | B3]

Ice Troll — Resistance to cold damage which can be useful. But vulnerability to fire, which also defeats its regeneration, so be careful with it.  [DV60, LLV | B2]

Troll — If the other troll types aren’t what you need, there’s always the original.  [DV60, LLV, Sc | B]


Size and various other things go up, including rock throwing range and damage. You now get the full elemental resistance or immunity that the form has, which is pretty useful at times.

— Large Giant

Desert Giant — Gets immunity to fire damage at this level. [LLV | B3]

Ice Troll — Gets immunity to Cold damage at this level.  [DV60, LLV | B2]

— Huge Giant

Mountain Troll — Regeneration, three big attacks and rend, probably the best combat form at this level. Rock throwing, rock catching. Vulnerable to sonic damage though. [DV60, LLV, Sc | LotLK]

Gegenees — Six Slams with grab, weapon attacks and five, or similar. With that many grabs, you can look at just grappling with that one hand.  [DV60, LLV | B5]

Sun Giant — Fire Immunity, Cold and Electricity Resistance, Rock Catching. [LLV | B5]

Moon Giant — Cold and Fire Resistance, Rock Throwing & Catching. Not as good as the Sun unless you want to chuck. [LLV | B5]

Storm Giant — Reasonable attacks and electricity immune, fast, swim speed, rock catching.  [LLV | B3]

Ocean Giant — Fairly similar to the Storm Giant; loses the immunity to electricity, but resists both that and cold. Loses rock catching, gains rock throwing. [LLV | B4]


The spell

Much like Giant Form, this allows you your armour and weapons to stick around. It also goes up to huge, and has a much wider array of forms and available abilities than Giant Form does, albeit lacking the regeneration and later elemental immunity, and having lower attribute bonuses. But what it does have is quite a few options with a high number of attacks, though none that I’ve found with pounce to make more use of them


Much like the other entry-level shapeshifts, the granted abilities here are mostly movement and senses, making the main questions ‘How many attacks does it have?’ and ‘Does it have flight?’

— Small Monstrous Humanoid

Charda — Five attacks, swim speed. If you need to be a small monstrous humanoid, this is probably your best bet unless you need another movement type. [DV120 | B2]

Ningyo — Three attacks, swim speed. [DV60 | B4]

— Medium Monstrous Humanoid

Deathsnatcher – Six primary attacks, and fly. Upgrades at every single level of of this spell, alas no Soul Rend. Now the best Level 3 spell combat form, though the others can be better at night as you don't get its See In Darkness. [Sc | B6]

Popobala — Five attacks, one of them big, two of them secondary, flight. Used to be thebest combat form. [DV60, BS60 | B3]

Gargoyle — Four attacks, flight, slightly better ground speed than the Popobala, plus all its attacks are primary. [DV60 | B]

Euryale — At this level, it's the stat buffs and six snake bites with reach; your GM might rule that they always count as secondary even though RAW bites are primary – that you get the downsides but not the upsides of Snake Independence. Good if you've got weapon wielded attacks, or you want to cast. Significant upgrades later. Oh, and you'll non-literally petrify people when they see a medusa coming towards them. [DV120  | B3]

Sabosan — Flight and scent if you need that combination. Three attacks. [DV60, BS60, Sc | B3]

Rokurokubi — A fairly big bite with 20ft reach. Also? Creeeeeeeeepy! [DV60 | B4]


At this point you gain grab, increased alternate movement speeds and… a few very specific abilities that specific monsters have. You also get trip and pounce, but I don’t think I could find any Monstrous Humanoids that actually had them. Potentially, wearing spiked armour with enhancement bonus/special abilities on the spikes could be a workable tactic here.

— Tiny Monstrous Humanoid

There are no tiny monstrous humanoids.

— Small Monstrous Humanoid

Kappa — Two attacks, grab.  [DV60 | B3]

— Medium Monstrous Humanoid

Deathsnatcher – Gains Pounce, flight improves. [Sc | B6]

Popobala — Gains two grabs at this level. [DV60, BS60 | B3]

Gargoyle — Gains the Freeze ability at this level, useful in urban environments. [DV60 | B]

Sabosan — Gains two grabs at this level. [DV60, BS60, Sc | B3]

Witchwyrd — Four slams, all with grab.  [DV60 | B2]

Doppelganger — Mimicry allows you to use any weapon or armour, but more importantly makes all spells count as being on your list for spell completion and trigger items; you don’t need use magic device for most things if you’ve got this form. [DV60 | B]

Kuchrima — Best flyer at this level, three attacks. [DV60, LLV, Sc | RoRl]

Malenti — Should you ever need to speak to sharks, this is the form for you! (You probably won’t need to). [DV60, BS30 | AP56]

Mongrelman — Mentioned only for its Sound Mimicry ability. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B2]

— Large Monstrous Humanoid

Four Armed Gargoyle — Six attacks, flight, freeze. Best combat form at this level. [DV60 | AP48]

Vouivre — Five attacks, flight. [DV60 | B4 & AP30]

Girtablilu — Fairly fast, three attacks (two with grab) plus attack with your weapon too. 

[DV60, TS30 | B3]

Annis Hag — Three attacks, two with grab. [DV60 | B3]

Lamia — weapon attacks plus two claws, but mostly mentioned because it’s fast. [DV60, LLV | B]

Calikang — Weapon attacks plus four slams [DV60| ISWG]

Tikbalang — Finally, a Monstrous Humanoid that can pounce. Three attacks, or four ranged spines (though limited spines per day). If you’re charging a lot, or have other things you want to do on the charge, this is pretty good. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B4]

Fen Mauler – Five attacks on a pouncing charge (two from Rend). [DV60, LLV, Sc | B6]

Formian Queen — Very slow, but two 4d8 claws — potentially very nasty with Vital Strike. [DV60, BS30, TS60, Sc | B4]

Nependis — Two claws with grab, and a 2d6 damage gore, climb speed. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B4]

Ichthyocentaur — Decent swimming pouncer with weapon attacks, plus a pair of naturals. Aquatic, poor land speed. [DV60 | B5]


Yet more abilities with the traditional size increases. Blindsense, poison and rake are probably the most useful of the gained abilities.

— Diminutive Monstrous Humanoid

There are no diminutive monstrous humanoids.

— Tiny Monstrous Humanoid

There are no tiny monstrous humanoids.

— Small Monstrous Humanoid

Charda — Gets cold vigor at this level – bonus to attacks and damage in cold environments. [DV120 | B2]

Kappa — Gains rake at this level.  [DV60 | B3]

Pukwudgie — Two claws, reasonably nasty con poison. [DV60 | B3]

— Medium Monstrous Humanoid

Deathsnatcher – Gets a 2 saves, 1d4 Constitution drain poison. Pretty strong though you may want the extra attribute points of bigger forms, or the six Dexterity and Constitution reach bites of the Eurale. [Sc | B6]

Euryale — Six snake attacks with reach and a poison that does Dexterity and Constitution damage and makes then Sonic vulnerable. Read up on the rules for stacking poisons before you get into combat with this. Gets All Around Vision, and if your GM considers Blindsense a lesser form of Blindsight, you get 30 of that at this level. [DV120, BSi60, AAV  | B3]

Jorogumo — Web, three attacks with a strong wisdom poison that’s hard to throw off. [DV60 | B3]

Popobala — Gains blindsense.  [DV60, BS60 | B3]

Sabosan — Also gets blindsense here.  [DV60, BS60, Sc | B3]

Formian Warrior — three attacks, two with grab, and a sting with Dexterity poison 

[DV60, BS30, | B4]

Maenad — Bite, two claws, all with a Constitution poison that takes two saves to stop. 

[DV60 | B4]

— Large Monstrous Humanoid

Minotaur — Never become lost! Or flatfooted either. That might be useful, but otherwise not actually that great – weapon attacks plus a gore. [DV60 | B]

Formian Myrmarch — Four attacks, one with a Dexterity + Sickened poison that takes two saves to end, Blindsense  [DV60, BS30 | B3]

Formian Queen — Gains Blindsense at this level [DV60, BS30, TS60, Sc | B4]

Tikbalang — Gains Trample. So it’s the only pouncing monstrous humanoid, and one of the few tramplers too. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B4]

— Huge Monstrous Humanoid

Thriae Queen — Weapon attacks, plus a sting that has one of the strongest con poisons, and staggers its target, flight. Best combat form at this level. [DV60, LLV | B3]

Hungerer — Three attacks, flight. [DV60, LLV | RoRl]

Saurian – T-Rex Man! Bite and claws with good damage on all three, but also the ability to wield weapons. [DV60, Sc | B6]


This level is just extra abilities; no size increase. The main gain is elemental resistance and the poison save bonus if the form is poison immune (something the other shapeshift spells lack), beyond that you also get breath weapons, and rend.

— Diminutive Monstrous Humanoid

There are no diminutive monstrous humanoids.

— Tiny Monstrous Humanoid

There are no tiny monstrous humanoids.

— Small Monstrous Humanoid

Charda — Gets cold resistance and poison save bonus at this level, plus one of the few that can make use of Darkvision 90 [DV120 | B2]

— Medium Monstrous Humanoid

Deathsnatcher – Final appearance, gets cold and fire resistance, poison save bonus, and an argument could be made that Rend is a lesser form of Soul Rend, therefore you might be able to get the damage (though not the level drain) elements of that.[Sc | B6]

Euryale — Gains Sonic resistance, a bonus to Poison Saves, and again potentially Blindsense 60. [DV120  | B3]

Popobala — Blindsense goes up to 60, gains poison save bonus, gains rend. [DV60, BS60 | B3]

Winter Hag — Here for the 30ft, 4d6 cold and blindness breath weapon it has.

— Large Monstrous Humanoid

Yeti — Cold resistance (but vulnerable to fire), two attacks with rend.

Calikang — Gains fairly nasty (but one use a day) breath weapon and electricity resistance. [DV60| ISWG]

Annis Hag — Gains rend. [DV60 | B3]

Vouivre — Gains a fairly nice breath weapon at this level [DV60 | B4 & AP30]

Formian Queen — Gains Tremorsense here. There’s better combat forms, but a nice suite of senses and still two strong attacks. [DV60, BS30, TS60, Sc | B4]

— Huge Monstrous Humanoid

Thriae Queen — Gains sonic resistance and poison save bonus. [DV60, LLV | B3]

Hungerer — Gains acid resistance and poison save bonus. [DV60, LLV | RoRl]

Saurian – Gets a Roar that Stuns on a failed Will Save, and Shakes on a successful one. [DV60, Sc | B6]


The Spell

Noticeable split in spell levels – Druids and Shamans get it earlier than the rest. Stats bonuses are nice if you're early entry, less good if not, but still noticeably better for creatures of their size (which given size penalties to attacks and AC, does add up some), however no Natural armour bonus (though you can keep what you're wearing). 

Potentially pretty nice for a Magus, as man can wield weapons for spell combat and some have natural attacks to throw in as well, and if you're using spells that are on the Fae's list, no countering or verbal/sonomatic components.

However, beyond that, I'm not that convinced of the usefulness of the Spell Likes, thus I haven't dwelled on them much beyond a few places where an array of them on a particular form look useful. There's potentially a few benefits — still being able to cast whilst pinned (though difficult Concentration check required), being able to cast when in the area of Silence or whilst tied up. But it's pretty niche — you could build a mage-killer Magus who gets a friend to cast Silence on her, whilst in the form of a Svartalfar, so can still cast a bunch of those touch spells. But it feels like it's either something like that, to build for, or something that you'll occasionally find useful, but mostly won't notice.

Worth noting all the levels give you the creatures' weaknesses, so those can be a downside on otherwise nice forms.

Because a lot of forms have a steadily improving capabilities, I'm going to put those improvements under their first entry unless an upgrade makes a major change to the usefulness of a form, is the only thing at a given spell level with a capability.


Strength or Dex plus Constitution bonus is pretty nice (though losing the Constitution can be slightly risky). Has the unusual thing of a maximum speed on the form, to stop the super-speedy forms being too powerful. No particularly exciting special abilities granted.

— Medium Fey

Erlking – fast and flies (both maxed out at this level), but only weapon attacks. Steadily improves over the levels. [DV60, LLV, Sc | B4] 

At II: 1d6 Bleed, Poison Resistance, DR 2/Cold Iron

At III: Acid, Cold and Electricity Resistance, DR 5/Cold Iron, Poison Resistance Improves

At IV: Elemental and damage resistances improve, gains spell resistance.

Ijiraq – two claws bite gore, and a few potentially useful spell-likes (Dimension Door & others) 

[LLV | B4] 

At IV: Hide in Plain Sight in icy terrain

Thin Man – bite, two claws with Reach [LLV | ISB] 

At II: Bleed, Compression – pretty good fight form for tight spots.

Rusalka – You won't get staggering touch, but as they're listed as attacks you may get hair attacks without the 'not grappled whilst grappling' and Charisma to CMB – or your GM may rule they're only there because of the Tresses special ability you don't have. If your GM allows it, four 15ft reach grab attacks, plus Aquatic with a decent swim speed [LLV | B3] 

At II: Constrict, DR 2/Cold Iron,  At III: Fire Resistance, DR 5/Cold Iron,  At IV: Spell Resistance

Svartalfar – Slightly faster than a standard race, and has a whole bunch of touch spells-likes that'd be good as a Magus if you need that. Weakness: Light Blindness [DV120, LLV | B4]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, At III: Cold, Electricity Resistance, DR 5/Cold Iron, Darkvision 90

At IV: Spell Resistance

Vilderavn – two claws and bite, flight. [LLV, SiD | B3]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, See in Darkness, At III: DR 5/Cold Iron,  Frightful Presence

At IV: Spell Resistance

Kamaitachi – A flying weasel with sickles for feet because… why not? Good flyer with four attacks. [LLV, Sc, BSi60 | B6]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, Bleed on attacks, At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, Blindsight, At IV: Spell Resistance

Wild Hunt Monarch – weapon attacks, gore, good upgrades later. [LLV, Sc, Sid | B6]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, See in Darkness 

At III: Fire, Electricity Resistance, DR 5/Cold Iron, Darkvision 90, At IV: Spell Resistance

— Small Fey

Boggle – Has four attacks [LLV | B6]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Spell Resistance

Redcap for the stat bonuses of a small creature plus a secondary Kick attack that you can use whilst moving (and fast movement). [LLV | B2]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, 

At IV: Fast Healing 3, albeit you lose it if you lose your hat.

Calpina – Has a bite with Grab, albeit the Grab would only work on small targets.[LLV | B2]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, At III: DR 5/Cold Iron

Nixie – Just here for if you need something Aquatic and with a Swim speed. [LLV | B3]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Spell Resistance

Boggart – two claws plus abduct (basically a free and better reposition if you hit with both claws. [LLV | B6]

At II: DR 2/Cold Iron, At III: DR 5/Cold Iron


This effectively 'jumps' a level compared to Beast Shape  and Monstrous Physique, and again a split between availability levels, and again this makes it much more attractive to the early accessers than those getting it later. Poison, DR 2/Cold Iron, Bleed and resistance to Posion and Mind Affecting where the form is immune come in here.

Burn is listed as an ability gained here, but I've yet to find any Fae with it.

— Medium Fey

Alp – 3 attacks, Crushing Leap, DR 2/Cold Iron. [DV60, LLV | B6]

At III: Gains Frightful Presence, DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Spell Resistance, Cold Resistance 

Candlestone Courtier – See in darkness [LLV, SiD | ABF]

Cold Rider – Icewalking [LLV, DV | B3]

At III: Cold Resistance, At IV: Spell Resistance, Cold Resistance improves

Swan Maiden – Trackless Step, DR 2/Cold Iron [LLV, DV | B3]

At III: Electricity and Cold resistance DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Spell Resistance

Hamadryad – tree meld, DR 2/Cold Iron [LLV | B4]  At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Fast Healing

Twigjack – Woodland Stride, two claws, vulnerable to fire [DV60, LLV | B2] 

— Small Fey

Korred: Animated Hair, decent ranged Rock Throwing, weapon attacks. DR 2/Cold Iron [LLV | B2]

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Fast Healing

Lurker in Light – There's an argument that a dagger amongst your stuff might suddenly become coated with Poison, if so this is a flying poisoner. If not, not so great. DR 2/Cold Iron [LLV | B2]

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron

Dvorovoi – Compresion on a Small creature means this can fit in pretty tiny spaces. Oversized Weapons means it can still use medium weapons rather than losing damage. Though depending on your GMs interpretation, you may have to put the weapon down whilst you shift. DR 2/Cold Iron [DV60, LLV | B2]   At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Spell Resistance

Nuglub Gremlin – Bite with grab, two claws, and Kneecapper giving it a bonus to Trip DR 2/Cold Iron [DV120, LLV | B5]    At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, At IV: Spell Resistance

Sangoi – Bite and two claws, all with Bleed, Blood Rage, DR 2/Cold Iron. [LLV | B5

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron

Bagiennik– Two claws, swim, aquatic. Touch attack Nasal Spray that does fire and acid damage, sets things on fire, but which can also be used to cure ability damage (if you can heal the damage after). DR 2/Cold Iron. [Sc | B5] At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, small Acid and Fire Resistance

— Large Fey

Nuckelavee – Weapon attacks plus a primary bite and two secondary hooves. Aquatic, poison resistance. DR 2/Cold Iron. [Sc | B3] At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, Poison Resistance improves.

Ankou – Fast flight, Two primary attacks, three secondary with 2d6 bleed, Blindsense DR 2/Cold Iron. [LLV, BS120 | B3] At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, flight improves.

Whisperer – Probably Six reach 20 touch attack tentacles doing 3d10 (no strength) though it could be argued that they're a function of the Cursed Wound ability you don't get. Flight, Blindsight far further than the spell gives you, see in darkness, and resistance to both Poison and Mind Effecting. [LLV, BS360, SiD | B6

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, Poison and Mind Affecting Resistance improves, gains Cold and Sonic resistance.

At IV: Gains Spell Resistance, Cold and Sonic resistance improves. 

Wild Hunt Horse – Fast, Rideable if you have a party member who wants to do that or need to get someone away from somewhere, one primary attack and two secondary attacks with bleed, DR 2/Cold Iron, plus Cold, Electricity and Fire resistances, See in Darkness. [LLV, SiD | B6]

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, Cold resistance improves, gets faster.

— Tiny Fey

Fastachees  – Two attacks that have 30 foot reach (sidestepping the usual 'zero reach' issues with the littlest creatures) long reach. DR 2/Cold Iron [LLV | B5]

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron

Fuath Gremlin – 2 claws, climb and swim, DR 2/Cold Iron, but vulnerable to fire and takes Constitution damage from sunlight. [DV120, LLV | B3]

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron, Gains Cold resistance.

At IV: Gains Spell Resistance.

Pooka – Okay flight, can blow a poison (or drunkenness) cloud, weapon attacks, DR 2/Cold Iron or Silver. [DV60, LLV | B4]

At III: DR 5/Cold Iron or Silver

At IV: Gains Spell Resistance, and Fast Healing 2.

Grimple Gremlin – 30 foot line of Nauseating vomit, bite, climb, fly, DR 2/Cold Iron. [DV60, LLV | B4]


Fortunately this one doesn't skip another level, so it's more comparable to the others for the early entrants. Diminutive Fey have similar stats to Tiny Magical Beasts, Huge Fey have same Strength and better Constitution than Huge Magical Beasts, but in both cases you're losing out on the natural armour (though can wear actual armour). 

— Medium Fey

Wild Hunt Hound – three attacks (big bite for a medium creature), damage resistance, cold, electricity plus fire resistance, and good senses. [LLV, Sc, SiD, BS60 BSi30 | B6]

— Small Fey

Chaneque – here for its fear aura. Has a claw attack, climb and climb fly claw. [LLV | B4] 

Quickling for high speed, and Supernatural Speed which gives Concealment, Uncanny Dodge and Evasion. DR 5/Cold Iron [LLV | B2]

At IV: Speed increases to 120.

— Tiny Fey

Sprite – here for Luminous, should you want to be a variable level light source. Other than that, good flight, weapon attacks, DR 2/Cold Iron

— Diminutive Fey

Tooth Fairy – Good flight, bite, weapon attacks.DR 2/cold iron [DV60, LLV | B3]

Mockingfey – Good flight, two talons [LLV | ISB]

— Huge Fey

Tunche – This is the only huge fey, but thankfully it has five primary attacks, one with Constitution, Wisdom and nauseating poison. Also has Sound Mimicry if you need that. DR 5/Cold Iron [DV, LLV, Sc | B4]


Skips a level again, making this level 8 or 9. No new sizes, so no extra stats – there are definitely better spells for stats at this level. It's all about the new abilities – which are pretty nice. Spell Resistance, Fast Healing, plus some extra speed. But because it's such a high level, if you're using this, you want to be using something with Fast Healing and/or Spells Resistance, depending on your needs — otherwise just use a lower level version.

Because it's just upgrades, most of the options here have been covered at previous levels. In terms of the best forms at this level, Quickling is good for high speed if you want to build around that, Pooka is a flying, DR, Fast Healing, Spell Resistance option, and Whisperer  has reach, touch attacks, Spell Resistance and elemental resistances – probably one of the good combat options for this level. For sneaky types, Ijiraq has hide in plain sight (icy terrain only) and four attacks.

— Medium Fey

Nereid – Here for Beguiling Aura — the ability to fascinate everyone around you, and Transparency — underwater invisibility. Also has a poison that it can deliver by ranged or meele touch, for d2 Constitution damage and blindnes, plus Spell, Cold and Poison Resistance, and DR 5/Cold Iron. Potentially pretty nice for a melee mage, in that I think you could maybe deliver a touch spell and its touch poison in the same attack.  [LLV | B2]

Banelight – You don't get the Light Vortices, so no attacks, but it has DR, Fast Healing, high speed flight, and it could be argued that spell resistance is a lesser form of its immunity to magic. However, the spell Darkness will stagger you and turn off your Fast Healing. [Bsi60, LLV | B6]

Fossegrim – If you'd rather your underwater invisibility came with two slams, rather than poison. DR 5/Cold Iron [LLV | B2]

— Small Fey

Spring-Heeled Jack – Not entirely sure this should be here, as it's not made clear from the description whether or not this is a unique creature. On the other hand, it's the only thing with the Vault ability, which is why I've included it. Other than that, not anything special. [LLV | B4]


The spell

The Undead Anatomy spell is problematical. It uses templated undead as examples and gives you powers that only templates have, but does not overrule the rule that polymorph effects do not allow you to take the form of templated creatures. Also, it gives you three natural attacks, which implies you don't get the natural attacks of your form, but doesn't specifically say you don't, therefore RAW you get both the granted attacks and the creature's natural attacks. Finally, it allows only 'roughly humanoid' forms, yet allows you to take forms at sizes where there are no (non-templated) forms that fit that description.

I’ve listed first all the non-templated creatures, and then I’ve gone through the templates, with both I have assumed that they only get the natural attacks granted by the spell. I plan to later return to this, and look at what the best options are if either or both of those assumptions are relaxed. 

Like Giant Form and Monstrous Physique, you can continue to use your armour and weapons in these forms, though you also get the attacks mentioned above. You also detect as undead, and are treated as undead for positive/negative energy, which may make it harder for your party healer to heal you, but you avoid being caught by the nastier anti-undead spells.


At this level, there’s not really much difference between the forms — it’s pretty much just  movement capabilities and senses, as the spell dictates your abilities.

— Small Undead

Tikoloshe — Has a swim speed, and people may think you’re blind (stats not on d20pfsrd). 

[BS60, BSi30  LLV | AP40]

Shredskin — Flight. [DV60 | B4]

— Medium Undead

Shadow — Flight, and its appearance will often scare people, if they recognise it. [DV60 | B]

Bhuta — Flight and Scent. [DV60, Sc | B3]

Minor Reaper — Only medium undead I could find with low light vision, should you want that. Probably also fairly intimidating to people. [DV60, LLV | AP48]

Ghul — Climb speed, if you need that. [DV60 | B3]


More abilities, meaning more meaningful choices. Grab, blood drain, and damage resistance are the stand-out abilities here, though I’m not sure what DR counts as lesser than others, so what you get is not entirely clear. You also get save bonuses against the attack types undead are immune to, though at the cost of also gaining their vulnerabilities.

— Tiny Undead

Pickled Punk — Included because it’s the only Tiny undead that that has a shape I’d call ‘roughly humanoid’ enough for the spell. Has DR 5/Bludgeoning, and being a Tiny creature with the 3 attacks the spell gives is reasonably good.

— Small Undead

Attic Whisperer — Has darkvision. [DV60 | B2]

Shredskin — Gains a pair of grabs [DV60 | B4]

— Medium Undead

Shadow — Flight improves slightly, gains darkvision. [DV60 | B]

Bhuta — Flight manuverability improves slightly, gains a fairly strong blood drain. Appears to either have a different blood drain to most creatures, or an additional capability; draining from creatures with bleed effects instead of/as well as when grappling. One of the better combat forms at this level. [DV60, Sc | B3]

Manananggal — Best flyer. Grab on its claws, blood drain. Possibly gets DR; unsure if ‘5/Bludgeoning’ counts as a lesser form of ‘10/good or silver’ for the purposes of polymorph rules. Probably best combat form of this size + level if it does. [DV60 | B3]

Witchfire — Flight, sound mimicry. [DV60 | B2]

Skeletal Champion / Draugr / Winterwight / Guecubu — All will get you DR 5/bludgeoning,apart from the Draugr where it’s bludgeoning or slashing but it has a swim speed. Apart from that, they’re relatively indistinguishable from each other, for what you get. 

[DV60 | B] / [DV60 | B2] / [DV60 | B2] / [DV60, TS60 | B2]

Mohrg / Revenant — Slams/claws with grab. [DV60 | B] / [DV60 | B2]

Guardian Phantom Armour — There’ll be moments when the Freeze available with this is a good way of hiding, if you have sufficient duration on your form. [DV60 | B4]

— Large Undead

Grim Reaper — Good flight, intimidating appearance, possibly DR. [DV60, LLV | AP48]

Giant Phantom Armour — Good for hiding somewhere a large suit of armour might be, as Freeze lets you take 20 on that.  [DV60 | B4]


DR improves, you get yet more abilities that suggest this spell is suppose to be applicable to templates. You also get disease, which is mostly useless unless you have long term plans, due to the slow onset most diseases have. Save bonus against the things undead are immune to increases here.

— Diminutive & Tiny Undead

None of the diminutive or tiny undead are ‘vaguely humanoid shaped’ to an extent I’d consider them usable for this spell.

— Small Undead

Tikoloshe — Gains blindsight at this level. [BS60, BSi30,  LLV | AP40]

— Medium Undead

Mummy — Has DR 5/–. You might also get Mummy rot ability because it’s disease infliction, but I doubt it. [DV60 | B]

 Revenant — Gains constrict. [DV60 | B2]

Guecubu — Gains burrow. [DV60, TS60 | B2]

Festering Spirit — Constitution damage trample, good if you’re facing a lot of small opponents. [DV60 | B4]

— Large Undead

Grim Reaper — Gains fear aura at this level. [DV60, LLV | AP48]

Daughter of Urgathoa — Immediate onset constitution damage + fatigue disease. [DV60 | ISWG]

— Huge Undead

These are the only two options that are humanoid enough; both are reasonable for combat.

Nightwalker — Damage resistance. [DV60, LLV | B2]

Gashadokuro — Grab on its bite. [DV60, LLV | B4 & AP54]


No size increase, but noticeable increases in DR, and you can now get resistances (gaining 30 rather than the usual 20), breath weapon, fast healing, and most usefully, incorporeality, albeit the last at the cost of a much shorter duration (unfortunately, this is not optional, meaning Undead Anatomy will sometimes be a better option, if you want a the abilities/look with a longer duration.

— Diminutive & Tiny Undead

None of the diminutive or tiny undead are ‘vaguely humanoid shaped’ to an extent I’d consider them usable for this spell.

— Small Undead

Nothing particularly new or interesting here.

— Medium Undead

Voidstick Zombie — Lifesense, Fast Healing. [DV60, LS60 | AP57]

Wraith — Incorporeal, Lifesense, flight. Staggered if in sunlight though. [DV60, LS60 | B]

Guecubu — gains tremorsense, electricity & cold resistance, fast healing.  [DV60, TS60 | B2]

Dybbuk — Incorporeal, damage resistance, no weaknesses (unlike most of the other incorporeal undead) [DV60 | B3]

Festering Spirit — Becomes incorporeal. [DV60 | B4]

— Large Undead

Ecorche — Strong damage resistance, fast healing [DV60 | B3]

Grim Reaper — Gains incorporeality and DR improvement at this level. [DV60, LLV | AP48]

— Huge Undead

Gashadokuro — Gains a fairly strong breath weapon [DV60, LLV | AP54]


Because of the nature of the templates, the abilities they grant, the fact that they can be applied to a variety of forms, and the fact there’s a limited variety of of them, I’m looking at these in turn and mostly splitting up what it gains from each level of the spell, though there are a few that are simple enough that I’m not bothering with that..

Ghost — Mostly only worth taking for the look, and the eventual incorporeality. If combined with a creature with many natural attacks, could be pretty effective with incorporeal touch attacks.

I — You look like a ghost, and you can fly though you’re not incorporeal.

II — Flight improves. No other benefits.

III — No benefits gained

IV — Gain incorporeality, at the cost of reduced duration

Vampire — Starts off fairly awful, if you really want Blood Drain then it’s good from UA II, but it’s really UA III & IV where this starts to get good. Probably pretty good if applied to creatures with Grab, maybe Rake too from UA III (not sure if you can rake and drain simultanously). 

I — You look like a vampire. That’s it, no form-specific bonuses at this level

II — Gain blood drain, possibly DR (at this level you can get 5/Bludgeoning, the Vampire has DR 10/Magic & Silver). You also gain Shadowless (shadow & reflection-less). and it’s vulnerabilities; not sure if you get all of them though.(sunlight, mirrors, holy symbols, need for invitation) — text says that you gain its vulnerabilities to attacks, with sunlight as an example. 

III — Gain resistance to cold and electricity, possibly get DR 5/Magic and Silver (since that can be reasonably argued to be lesser than DR 5/-)

IV — Gain fast healing 5, DR 10/Magic and Silver

Vampire Variants

Nosferatu — DR is just 5/wood and piercing, but has sonic resistance, low light vision, and scent.

Skeleton / Skeletal Champion — Not that great, but probably alright for pretending to be a random mook skeleton, and also if you want good cold resistance with a bit of DR – if you’re fighting a White Dragon, or similar. Skeletal Champion gains nothing over the standard Skeleton.

I — No special abilities, just the look.

II — Gain DR 5/Bludgeoning

III — Gain cold resistance

IV — Cold resistance improves

Skeleton VariantsGallowdead gains DR 5/Magic and Bludgeoning at UA III, DR 10/Magic and Bludgeoning at UA IV. Burning Skeleton gains fire resistance at UA III, and Fiery Aura, Fiery Death, and better fire resistance at UA IV

Zombie — Probably gets DR 5/slashing at UA III, as that’s when DR 5/- is available. Gains no other special abilities. Only worth it if you want to look like a zombie. Does have the advantage that you don’t have the staggered special quality, so you’re not a slow zombie.

Lich — Fairly light on gained abilities, though fear aura is quite nice, and at the higher level having resist 30 to two elements, and the highest DR is pretty useful.

I — Just the appearance.

II — Probably gains DR 5/bludgeoning

III — Gains cold and electricity resistance and fear aura.

IV — Resistances improves, and DR is now 15/bludgeoning and magic

Frostfallen — Cold resistance and decent DR. Lich is just plain better though.

I — No special abilities, just the look.

II — Gain DR 5/Bludgeoning. Become vulnerable to fire.

III — Gain cold resistance.

IV — Gain DR 10/Bludgeoning (assuming you’re 11+ HD), Cold resistance improves.

Graveknight — Good if you need the extra resistance versus something specific/rare

I — Just the appearance.

II — Nothing.

III — Gain DR 5/Magic, and resistance to cold, electricity and an element of your choice.

IV — Gain DR 10/magic, all three resistances improve.

Orison Mummmy — Gain DR 5/- at UA III, at the cost of a single elemental vulnerability that enemies may be able to work out (if they have high perception and linguistics). Probably mostly best for sticking on something with good attacks/other useful capabilities, that you want to add DR 5/- to.

Penanggalen — Am assuming you take the form of just the separated part. Not bad if you want the flight, otherwise Vampire is better.

I — Appearance (and a freaky appearance it is!) and flight.

II — Gains blood drain. Flight improves. Not sure if the light sensitivity and staggered in sunlight effects count as vulnerabilities to attacks for the spell.

III — Gains DR 5/Silver and slashing, resistance to cold and fire

IV — Fast Healing 5.

Ravener — Requires your GM to let you take the form of an undead dragon, and its abilities are fairly dependent on what the dragon has. If allowed that, you get blindsense 30 at UA III, and at UA IV that and your darkvision gets increased, and you get a breath weapon which deals both damage and negative levels. You might get DR 5/good at UA III, if the dragon had DR 5/magic or more.

Wyrmskull — Another ‘will your GM let you be an undead dragon’ one. Roughly similar to Ravener, though not as good, barring better fly. Has DR 5/Bludgeoning.

Juju Zombie — Not bad, but Lich or Vampire is generally better. Main reason for taking this is increased possibility of people not knowing what it was.

I — No special abilities.

II — No special abilities.

III — DR 5/Magic and Slashing, cold, fire, and electricity resistance

IV — Cold and electricity resistance increases, DR probably increases to 10.


The Spell

A good number of attacks, a breath weapon when you need it, some resistances (though also sometimes some vulnerabilities), and the benefit that you can have five or six attacks without your GM complaining that you’re minmaxing to choose a weird form with too many attacks. If you have a GM who’s fairly restrictive on what you can choose from for the other spells, this and Elemental Body may be better, as they’re absolutely clear what you get.

Relatively little changes as the levels go up, as it’s largely a case of just increasing 

I — five attacks, and a decent damage breath weapon. Various special movement capabilities, take what you need. Best forms is probably Green or Gold if you want a cone Breath Weapon — both because they lack vulnerabilities, Green because acid is a less resisted element and Gold because Fire is an often used element, so the resistance is more useful. Black or Copper are probably best if you want a line breath weapon, again because acid damage and no vulnerabilities.

II — Numbers go up statwise, damage-wise, adding a sixth attack and upping your fly speed, but otherwise the only real change is the addition of Damage Resistance 5/Magic. For here and above, cone breath weapons probably beat lines, unless your enemy is a long way away or you need the precision to avoid hitting your party.

III — Elemental immunity, and breath weapon every D4 rounds is pretty strong, alongside the good stat bonuses and attacks. This with the right buffs is a very effective mook-killer – breathe on them every few rounds, and spend the rest of the time rending them apart, and DR 10/Magic, +8 Natural armour, and Frightful Presence plus Blindsense for keeping them scattered, yet finding them. Blindsense 60 and Darkvision 120 make this the sensory radar station that dragons are known for being.


The Spell

Slightly strange one here, as the spell tells you the majority of what you get, but you still need to look at the elemental’s statblocks to see what attacks you’re getting, and stuff like the size of your Whirlwind, Vortex or Burn damage. As mentioned with Form of the Dragon, this is good if your GM dislikes the vast number of different things and therefore attack combinations the other shapeshifts can grant; you get a bunch of different possibilities from the four elemental options here, but it’s still quite manageable for someone to read. It’s also good if you want a simple form to use yourself – all you need to know is the stat bonuses, your Slam damage, and one special ability per element (Whirlwind/Earth Glide/Burn/Vortex).

The slams that the forms give are natural attacks, and I’d say the forms are humanoid enough to wield weapons (barring turning into a Whirlwind or Vortex), so with Multiattack and/or a high enough BAB, you should be able to use a weapon alongside them, though individual GMs might rule differently, and once you’re getting mutiple slams it becomes a little less if you should lose one.