Springtime of Nations Timeline

Springtime of Nations


-The United Kingdom of the Netherlands prevents the Belgian Revolution by more lenient treatment and fairer representation.


-Most of the Revolutions proceed as usual, however the Hungarian revolution is more successful, as the Russians do not get involved, due to

a conflict with the Ottomans. The Prague uprising is still crushed.

-The Frankfurt parliament succeeds in uniting the German Confederation under Prussia, except for Luxembourg, and the lands under the Habsburgs.

-Sardinia-Piedmont does much better in the First War of Italian War of Independence, and by the end, is ceded Lombardy. The Duchies of Parma and

Modena voluntarily united under Sardinia. However, in Tuscany and Venice, radical republicans seize power, and, opposed to a united Monarchist Italy,

and under pressure from the Germans and French, refuse to unite with Sardinia. Nevertheless, king Charles Albert declares "the Kingdom of Italy" on November 13, 1849.

-An independent Hungarian Republic is proclaimed, with Lajos Kossuth as its President.

-After the Hungarians gain independence, Austria eventually joins the new German Empire in 1850, as the Kingdom of Austria, dragging a reluctant Bohemia with them. The Habsburgs are granted a unique level of Autonomy. They are given authority over the Kingdom of Bohemia, representing both within the Reichstag.

-Due to conflicts between Hungary and Austria over the Status of Croatia, an independent Kingdom of Croatia is created, in personal union under the Habsburg King. In compensation, the Hungarians are given control over Galicia.



-1857, revolutionaries take control of Rome once again, seeking to unify Italy under a "Roman Republic".

-1857-1858, in the second war of Italian Independence, the Kingdom of Italy fights the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Papal States, after Italian intervention in the Roman Revolution of 1857 escalates. Despite several military victories, the threat of German intervention, and a lack of French commitment, the war is ended in stalemate. Italy occupies Romagna

-In 1857, the Republic of Tuscany joins the Kingdom of Italy, after moderates and Italian nationalist parties take a majority. They are encouraged by Italian victories in the second war of Italian Independence. The Republic of Venice, still charged with republican fervor, and under German protection remains independent.


-1861-1863, the American Civil War. Confederate Victories early on, and a more successful Mexican adventure, convince the French to intervene. The war ends with a Confederate Victory, with the South losing Kentucky and West Virginia, but receiving their claimed Arizona Territory, and the Arizona and Indian Territories, which are admitted as the States of Arizona and Sequoyah, respectively.

-After losing the war, with the DC directly bordering the Confederacy in Virginia, the government of the US is moved north to Philadelphia, which becomes the new de-facto capital. However, as

a show a defiance, Washington DC still remains the official capital of the United States.

-In 1864, with French support, Mexican general Porfirio Diaz overthrows Mexican President Benito Juarez, and installs himself as the head of a military dictatorship.

-Britain allies with Ottoman Empire to prevent the Russians from seizing territory, in the First Russo-Turkish war of 1863-1864. The war ends with no exchange of territories.

-Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Romania gain de-facto independence as a result of the Russo-Turkish war, but are still technically under Ottoman control.

-The second Schleswig war in 1868, between Germany and Denmark, leads to Schleswig-Holstein joining Germany in 1869. Germany also gains control over the Danish

Virgin islands. The US protests this, but is unable to do anything.

-In 1869, fearing from Haitian invasion, the Dominican Republic, known in the US and Santo Domingo, asks to join the United States, at least under a protectorate, but hopefully as a state. Hoping to counter French, Confederate, and Mexican interests in the Caribbean, and under pressure from American business interests, President Horatio Seymour agrees to the creation of a protectorate.



-Mexican Dictator Porfirio Diaz, under French pressure, sells the Baja California Peninsula, and a small slice of Sonora bordering Arizona to the Confederate States in 1871. The Confederates

begin construction of their own transcontinental railroad, to connect their newly acquired Pacific harbors to the rest of the nation.

-Outrage over the sale of Mexican land, and general discontent with Diaz precipates the Mexican Civil War of 1871-1876. The anti-imperialist Republicans are led by Benito Juarez, and after his death, Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada. Diaz finds support amongst the church, nobility, and other elites, while the Republicans draw support from the common people The Republicans are eventually successful.

-Tensions between the US and the Confederates, over Confederate support of Diaz during the Mexican Civil War, nearly break out into war in 1874, leading to the Confederates withdrawing advisors and troops from Mexico. Because of this, the Confederates seek closer ties with France. 

-In 1875, the Kingdom of Hungary goes from being in personal union with the Duchy of Austria, now just a constituent state of Germany, to having a King in their own right. They crown the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian (Younger brother of Archduke Franz Joseph, OTL Emperor of Mexico), as Maximilian II, King of Hungary.

-Croatia will follow suit in 1877, crowning Maximilian’s 21 year old niece Archduchess Gisela as Queen Mary II of Croatia. Unlike Maximilian in Hungary, who is given some power under the constitution, Mary’s coronation was mostly a prestige move, with the new queen remaining a symbolic figurehead with little power. Due in part to her young age and gender, the parliament of Croatia will remain in charge of affairs. Because of Mary’s marriage to Prince Leopold of Bavaria, the Croatian Branch of the Habsburg tree becomes known as the House of Habsburg-Wittelsbach.

-Anglophobic sentiment in Russia, after the Russo-Turkish war, and due to tensions over the Great Game in Central Asia, contribute to the Russians signing an alliance with France in 1873. 

-Britain signs alliances with Germany and Japan to counter Russia.

-Portugal successfully seizes control of Madagascar in 1875, making the Merina Kingdom their protectorate. The king of Merina agrees, partially due to Portuguese military superiority, and also to protect his kingdom from the French. French Influence on the island had decayed, due to neglect, disease, and a strengthened Merina.

-After the Bosnian and Albanian revolts in 1877, Russia intervenes against the Ottomans to protect their Slavic brethren, beginning the second 

Russo-Turkish war (1877-1879), also known as the "Balkan Crisis".

-Poland rebels against Russia while the Tsar is distracted with the Turks. The Poles are supported by Germany. They manage to take control of much of Congress Poland.

-The Treaty of Sofia ends the Balkan Crisis. Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria gain territory at the expense of the Ottomans. Russia annexes Kars in the Caucasus. The short lived "Republic of Bosnia" votes to unify with Serbia, but upon protestations from Croatia, some Croatian populated border regions are ceded to Croatia.

-The Kingdom of Albania is declared, Russian Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich is crowned king of Albania, adopting the name "Skanderbeg II".

-Greece, in addition to its gains in the mainland Balkans, gains control over most of the Aegean Islands and Crete.

-Russia agrees to recognise the independence of a neutral independent Poland, in order to avoid war with Germany. Hungary agrees to allow the Free City of Krakow to unite with Poland. Poland crowns prince Frederick Augustus Georg Ludwig of Saxony (OTL King Georg of Saxony) as King Frederyk Augustus II.

-During the war, to protect their interests in the Suez Canal, the French Empire convinces the Sultan of Egypt to declare independence. The Sultanate of Egypt, including their Sudanese possessions, becomes a French Protectorate.

-Emperor of France, Napoleon III dies on December 2, 1879, and is replaced by his 23 year old son, who becomes Napoleon IV.


-Ottoman Empire signs a treaty with the British in 1882, leasing them the island of Cyprus.

-In 1883, the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro unify to create the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

-The Rome Conference of 1885 helps establish a more orderly and peaceful Scramble for Africa. 

-Portugal, breaking their nearly 600 year alliance with Britain, successfully seeks French support in gaining territories to connect their African coastal Colonies of Mozambique and Angola. In return, Portugal is forced to cede its protectorate over Madagascar, and colony in Guinea-Bissau to the British.

-Italy, after gaining French support, fights in the Third War of Italian Independence. This time they ignore Venetia, but defeat the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. They formally incorporate the Kingdom and much of the Papal States in 1887. A rump Papal states is left in control of Latium.

-The Confederate States and the Empire of Japan sign a secret treaty against Spain in 1889, promising cooperation to seize their territories of interest.

-France, after the Sino-French war of 1888, forces China to sign the Treaty of Hanoi, granting France a 99 year lease over Guangzhouwan, and the island of Hainan.


-Britain manages to defeat both the mullahs in Somalia, and the Kingdom of Ethiopia, establishing protectorates over both.

-Spain establishes a protectorate over Morocco. This is almost leads to war with France, over their interests in Morocco, and so, the Spanish cede Tangier, and Casablanca to the Empire in the Treaty of Madrid in 1892.

-Due to French pressure, several large slave revolts, and the economic decline of slave based markets due to burgeoning industrialisation, the Confederate States of America formally abolishes Slavery in 1894. However, Blacks are not granted civil rights or citizenship, and most are still stuck in slave-like sharecropper positions. Nevertheless, the decision is unpopular in Dixie. The conditions are similar to Apartheid South Africa in OTL.

-War nearly breaks out between the Triple Alliance (Germany, Hungary, and Britain) and the Entente (France, Russia, Italy), over the Congo crisis of 1894. Territorial disputes are resolved in Germany's favor, but it is forced to cede their colony of Ober-Kongo (OTL Central African Republic, Ubangi-Shari), to France.

-More moderate Italian Nationalist parties are elected in Venice. Fearing that Venice will attempt to join Italy, Germany invades in 1896, overthrowing the government. This effectively signals a change in the reasoning behind Venice remaining independent from it being an anti-monarchist stronghold, to it essentially becoming a German buffer state.

-Spain defeats China in the Sino-Japanese war, which goes the same as in OTL. They gain a protectorate over Korea, and are ceded Taiwan.

-After the Cuban rebellion of 1898, the Confederate States launches an invasion of Cuba in April 1899, ostensibly, "to protect Confederate interests". 

Despite the weaker Spanish military, the Confederates suffer heavy losses, due to inferior organisation, disease, and a break down in cooperation with the Cuban revolutionaries. However, soon Japan, in accordance with the secret treaty, declares war on Spain. The US seeks to interfere, but backs down due to the British backing the Japanese, and by extension, the Confederates. Scorched by both France and Britain, the US becomes more isolationist.

-In the Treaty of London in 1899, Spain is forced to allow an independent Cuba, under Confederate influence. However, they are allowed to keep Puerto

Rico. The idea of an independent Cuba emerges as a compromise between the United Kingdom and the US, who are opposed to the Confederates annexing Cuba. In the end, the US signs the treaty, guaranteeing Cuban independence.

In a separate treaty, signed only days later, also in London, the Spanish Philippines are ceded to Japan, which establishes a puppet government. 

The Remaining Spanish East Indies territories (Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, and the Marianas islands) are ceded to Japan, which governs them directly, as colonies.

-As a result of the Confederate acquisition of Cuba, the US announces the annexation of Santo Domingo in November of 1899.



-To confirm their solidarity against both the interfering Europeans, and the Confederate States, the Mexican Republic and the United States sign a treaty of Alliance in 1901.

-In 1901, British colonies in Australia combine to create the Commonwealth of Australia. However, due to disagreements, the colony of West Australia does not join the Confederation.

-1902, Italy occupies Ottoman Tunisia. The Ottomans are forced to accept the fait-accompli, under French pressure.

-1902, The United States announces plans to build a canal through Nicaragua in order to reduce travel time from one coast to another. The Confederates are opposed to the Americans having that much control, but are powerless to do anything. However, the plans run into problems, with Malaria and construction accidents causing a rather high death rate among workers. This, combined with ballooning costs and British pressure, force the US to abandon the venture in 1905.

The Great War (1905-1909):


-On April 9th, 1905, the Prince Nicholas, heir to the Russian throne is assassinated in Warsaw by a Polish nationalist. Russia, believing the killer to be a part of a Galicia based Polish nationalist organisation, the New Polish Legion, demand that the Hungarians surrender members of the organisation.

-The Hungarians refuse, not wishing to extradite Hungarian citizens without concrete proof. The Russians issue an ultimatum, and begin to mobilise their army.

-Alarmed, the Germans demand that the Russians stop mobilising. The Russians refuse. On May 25, Germany declares war on Russia, followed shortly by Hungary. In response, France declares war on Germany. The United Kingdom declares war on France and Russia in response.

-Due to their Moltke plan to defeat France, Germany invades Luxembourg to circumvent French border fortifications. In response, and to the Germans

surprise, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands declares war on Germany for invading their subject state.

-On June 1, due to their obligations as a member of the Entente, Italy declares war on the Allies.

-Despite a quick conquest of the Upper Netherlands, Eastern Wallonia, Luxembourg, and portions of Northern France, the war in the West breaks down into a bloody stalemate by mid summer. The German front lines are mostly motionless in Flanders, and Northern France.

-In the East, the Germans advance into Russian Lithuania, but Russian troops cross the border into Hungarian Galicia. They also invade neutral Poland, bringing it into the German camp. The front lines in the east are slightly more fluid, but advances are still hampered by long supply lines and much higher casualties than expected. Russian troops, despite initial advancements are bogged down in the Carpathians.

-The British and Germans quickly occupy Dutch Colonies, and Russian Alaska. However, French colonial troops put up a much harder fight than those of the other Entente members. Fighting will occur in the French Colonies, especially in Africa, until wars end.

-After discussions with the British, Japan declares war on the Entente on July 3. They hope to seize colonies from France and the Dutch, and Russian

far eastern territories. Japanese troops invade and put under siege the Russian fortress in Port Arthur. Japanese Troops in Korea move to attack 

Vladivostok. The Japanese Navy also sends ships and men to seize French possessions in China, and to assist the Allies in capturing Entente colonies in

Southeast Asia. They invade Hainan and Guangzhouwan. Japanese troops land on Sakhalin Island.

-The Ottoman Empire closes the Dardanelles to Russian shipping in September. In response, Russia declares war on the Empire. Russian attempts to invade Ottoman Armenia, are stalled by freezing weather and lack of supplies. Russian and Ottoman troops freeze in the Caucasus mountains.

-Once the Ottoman front opens up, Russian troops invade Northern Persia, and engage British troops there.


-After the winter, where little to no change in the front lines took place, the Germans launch their Spring Offensive in late March. The goal of the

operation is to seize control of the channel ports, especially Antwerp. In tandem with this, the British launch a naval invasion of Zeeland. Both operations meet with early success, but are quickly slowed, with enormous casualties. This will be a trend in most future operations.

-After negotiations, Yugoslavia joins the Allies in May of 1906. They are promised the right to annex the Kingdom of Croatia, Slovenia, and Hungarian

Vojvodina. They quickly launch attacks against Croatia.

-Following similar negotiations, the Kingdom of Romania declares war on Hungary in June. They are promised Transylvania. The initial Romanian offensives are coordinated with the Russian Carpathian attacks. Though the Romanians make some progress, the Russian expend thousands of men for little ground gained.

-The Germans, after the collapse of the Russian offensive, launch a counter-offensive, driving the Russians out of almost 50% of the territory they've occupied in Hungary. German troops also recapture most of the rest of Poland, and make some advances into Lithuania.

-The British Fleet engages a joint French-Italian fleet in the Mediterranean in the Battle of the Balearic Sea. The British deal a stunning blow to the Entente Fleet, sinking or crippling 4 battleships, including the French flagship Voltaire. Seven cruisers, and nine destroyers are also taken out.  After this, the Entente battleships will remain in port for the rest of the war, giving the British control over the Mediterranean. Entente naval activity is mostly limited to submarines for the remainder of the war.

-Operating from Ottoman Tripolitania, the British launch offensives against Entente North African possessions. The primary purpose of the operation is to seize the Suez Canal. The Ottomans launch attacks into the Sinai, supported by British Colonial troops. The ANZAC legions make a name for themselves in this harsh desert warfare.

-The Japanese continue the bloody siege of Vladivostok. Russian and Japanese troops begin to fight in Manchuria, much to the protestations of the 

Qing government. Both sides raid local farms for supplies, and several bloody incidents involving Chinese civilians occur. The imperial government, 

already losing credibility due to the unequal treaties, and their humiliating defeat against Japan, is blamed for failing to protect its citizens, 

leading to unrest and riots. Empress Dowager Cixi does not take action, fearing that she may draw China into the war.

-The French launch a bloody, fruitless counteroffensive against the Germans in September. Nothing of worth is accomplished.

-The Admiralty begin to consider launching a naval invasion against the Entente, to open a new front. However, the staff are divided on where. One 

faction, led by Lord of the Admiralty, Cawdor, advocates launching an offensive against the French coast, likely either Calais or Normandy. Another faction however, believe that the French are too prepared for such an attack, and to do so would result in more horrific casualties. They advocate 

instead an invasion of Sicily, in order to open up a front against the Italians. The Italians have proven themselves incapable of taking Venice or 

Trentino, and were believed to be the weak link in the chain. In the end, the Italian camp wins out, and planning for the operation begins.

-On October 14, Bulgaria joins the war on the side of the Allies. The immediately launch offensives against Romania and Yugoslavia.

-In response to Armenians defecting to the Russian side, the Ottomans begin relocation efforts with their Armenian population, though thousands still

die during the forced population transfer, a genocide on the scale of OTL does not occur.

-With Bulgarian support, a joint German Hungarian Army launches a massive operation against Romania in late October. The campaign manages to drive the Romanians out of Transylvania and capture Oltenia, but are slowed by the onset of winter.

-December 12, 1906, a French submarine sinks an American passenger liner by mistake. The United States speaks out against the French, and imposes a total embargo. The French, who had previously been importing American goods through neutrals, and taking out loans with American banks, are severely crippled by this action.


-The Ottomans are defeated in their attempt to launch a counteroffensive against the Russians in March.

-Fighting resumes in Romania as Spring arrives. This theater proves to be the most active, with the Allies making great gains.

-Croatian and German troops are bogged down in Bosnia, but the Hungarians manage to reach the Danube, just miles to the East of Belgrade.

-The Germans launch another offensive against the French, striking to the south this time, while the British Expeditionary Force launches a simultaneous attack that manages to capture Antwerp. The Germans initially make fantastic advances, reminiscent of 1905. The general staff hope to encircle the French forces in Lorraine, but they are stopped on the outskirts of Metz. The battle of Metz becomes one of the bloodiest of the entire war.

-Commonwealth and Ottoman forces manage to capture the Suez, but French forces destroy the canal before it falls into enemy hands. The British still consider it a victory, having denied the French access to the canal. Meanwhile, Tunisia and Algeria fall to the British, bringing the Mediterranean under British dominance.

-The Japanese finally take Vladivostok in June. Russian troops in the far east begin a slow, costly retreat, attempting to defend the trans-Siberian railway.

-In the East, the Russians launch the Polish offensive in July, the largest single operation of the entire war. The Russians make gains in Eastern Poland and Southern Lithuania, but are stopped by stretched supply lines. However, despite their success, the human and material losses of the Polish offensive essentially removes the Russian ability to launch any large scale offensives for the rest of the war. The Hungarian army is similarly decimated, making them more and more dependent on Germany.

-The Ottomans, after the Polish Offensive, manage to push most Russian forces out of their borders. Attempts to drive into Russian territory however fail, 

due to the terrain and inferior Ottoman military doctrines.

-In August, a British invasion force based in Tunisia lands on the beaches of Sicily, on the Southeastern coast. However, due to sloppy planning on the 

part of the British, the Italians receive considerable advance notice of the assault. The landing zones are heavily contested, and the quick campaign 

hoped for devolves into another front of slow trench warfare.

-The conquest of the Dutch East Indies and French Indochina is declared complete in September, with the last Dutch forces surrendering in Aceh.

-The Tsar puts down anti-war protests in Petrograd.

-The first use of an airplane as a reconnaissance tool is performed by the British.

-In November, the Germans finally capture Metz, ending the bloody battle. A failed French counteroffensive, with mass losses, is defeated, and the first major mutinies in the French army begin.

-In Cuba, unfair Confederate trade practices cause massive economic instability. Merchants protest in Havana, but, on November 17, Confederate troops crack down on them, killing several protesters in what becomes known as "Domingo Sangriento". In response, the Cuban national guard declares that they will no longer follow Confederate orders. Considering Cuba to be in rebellion, the Confederates declare martial law. However, the National guard and civilian militias rise up against the occupiers. The Cuban revolution begins.


-In February, combined Hungarian, German and Croatian forces manage to occupy all of Serbia and Bosnia. The remaining Yugoslavian army retreats to the hills of Montenegro, where they will remain until the end of the war.

-In April, German plans to launch an offensive pressing West are caught off guard by a massive French Offensive into Wallonia. German supply lines are forced to divert, and thousands of men ready to launch an attack, are relocated to cover their flank. The "Foch Offensive" is eventually defeated, and the German counterattack pushes the French back to the Somme River. Mass mutinies occur in the French Army, as soldiers refuse to engage in any more large scale bloody offensives.

-In May, the British finally capture Palermo, completing the conquest of Sicily. They begin to plan for an invasion of the Italian mainland.

-In the north, Italian troops were defeated and pushed back into Lombardy in June. The Germans and Venetians make extensive gains, breaking the Italian stalemate for the first time, and pushing the fighting out of the Alps.

-Emperor Napoleon IV refuses peace overtures from Germany in October, and vows to "defend every centimeter of French soil". News of this leaks to the public, and revolutionaries riot in the streets of Paris, demanding an end to the war, and the abdication of the Emperor.

-The Kingdom of Siam joins the war on the Allied side, hoping to regain some of their lost territories in French Indochina. They provide laborers, an expeditionary force, and resources.

-In the Ottoman empire, Arabs and Kurds protest against conscription laws, and demand additional autonomy in their affairs at wars end. The Ottoman government makes some vague promises, arrests some dissidents, and is forced to devote Turkish soldiers to garrison Mesopotamia and Syria, fearing that local forces may not remain loyal in the case of an uprising. This further hampers their ability to launch offensives against the Russians.

-The Germans make some advances in the East in offensives in the summer, pushing into northern Romania, and reaching the Dvina river on the Baltic front.

-Cuban revolutionaries take control of Havana, and declare a new, independent Cuban Republic. Confederate forces control around 40% of the island at the time. Mass guerilla warfare on the part of Cuban fighters takes a massive toll on Confederate forces, and in response, they resort to collective 

punishment, leading to mass atrocities. The heavy toll of the war begins to make it unpopular back home. By now, the United States is openly supporting the Cuban revolutionaries.

-Upon the death of Empress Dowager Cixi in China, anti-Qing revolutionaries, frustrated by the weakness of the imperial regime, rebel against the government. The regency council for the child emperor Puyi cannot agree on a single course of action, and the central government in China breaks down. Finally, in November, the rebellion morphs into a full scale civil war, with Qing loyalists, with the support of much of the army controlling the north, and the opposing forces, the south. The Anti-Qing faction is a loose alliance of the anti-foreigner Boxer movement, the republican Kuomintang, and regional warlords unhappy with the central government. The authority of the government over the outer regions of China evaporates, and warlords seize control. Mongolia, Tibet, and the Uyghurs and Hui Chinese in Xinjiang all declare independence from China. To protect their interests in China against the Boxers, Japan begins to send massive amounts of financial and military aid to the Qing government.

-By December, the Allies finally have control over all of the Netherlands, and prepare to launch their final offensive against France.

-Brazil joins the war in late December on the side of the Allies, hoping to annex French and Dutch possessions in Guyana.

-Ukrainian nationalists launch an anti-Russian uprising in Kiev on Christmas Eve. The rebellion is put down, but the Russians are forced to divert troops to occupy Ukraine.


-The Germans employ the first aerial attacks in history, using Zeppelins to bomb French lines in early January.

-In March, British troops land on the shores of Italy. The Italian government seeks an armistice with the Allies, and fighting in Italy stops on April 2.

-In April, the Germans launch Operation Arminius, an offensive directed towards Paris. They employ many new, revolutionary tactics and technologies, 

including armored cars, large scale aerial reconnaissance, and infantry infiltration tactics. They break through French lines and push towards Paris.

-The Russians launch what proves to be the last Entente offensive of the war in May, capturing Ottoman territory in Armenia, and driving the Turks out of the Caucasus.

-With the Germans just 20 km from Paris, and revolutions in the streets, Napoleon IV announces both an armistice with Germany and his abdication on June 15. Upon the surrender of France, the Dutch government in exile formally surrenders to the Allies on June 21. Only Russia, Romania, and Yugoslavia remain on the Entente side. The British occupy the Northern French coast.

-Large amounts of German troops are redirected from Italy and France to the East, and British and Ottoman troops move into Persia and the Caucasus. Tsar Alexander III is under pressure to surrender, but refuses, citing his gains against the Turks earlier that year. Peace protests become more and more common and larger in number.

-With the Russians seemingly on the verge of defeat, the Albanians overthrow their autocratic Romanov king, and declare a republic on July 13.

-In August, the Hungarians and Germans launch a long planned combined offensive against the Romanians and Russians in the south, coordinated with German attacks in the baltics, and a joint offensive initiated by the Ottomans, and British forces in Persia. The efforts are bolstered by the arrival of veteran troops from the west, and the near collapse of the Russian army under the overwhelming offensive. By the end of September, the major cities of Baku, Bucharest, Yerevan, Vilnius, and Riga all fall to the Allies.

-In the face of the massive defeat, revolution and rebellion at home, and diplomatic isolation, Tsar Alexander finally agrees to a ceasefire with the Allies on October 30, ending fighting in the Great War.

Peace Treaties 1910-1911:

Treaty of Frankfurt (France):

-Germany annexes German speaking areas in Alsace and Lorraine. All fortifications remaining on the French border are turned over to Germany.

-Britain is granted control of fortifications and harbors of Calais and Dunkerque. Brittany is separated from France, becoming a Republic under British influence.

-The Ottoman Empire directly annexes the Sinai peninsula and re-establishes their authority over the Sultan of Egypt. However, the Suez Canal Zone and Egyptian Sudan are ceded to Britain.

-French Tangier is granted to Britain, while Spain is allowed to reoccupy Casablanca.

-In Africa, Germany regains Ober-Kongo, and takes Gabon, French Sudan (OTL Chad), and French Togo. The French Comoros islands off Madagascar are ceded to Britain, with the exception of the Glorioso Islands, which are incorporated into German Seychelles. Parts of Southeastern French Niger are incorporated into German Kamerun.

-The French African colonies of Senegal, Upper Volta, and Niger are ceded to Britain. Parts of southern Mauritania are ceded to British Guinea, and the newly British Upper Volta.

-In the Americas, all French islands in the Caribbean are ceded to Britain, as is St. Pierre and Miquelon. French Guiana is ceded to Britain, with the exception of a small part in the south, which is ceded to Brazil.

-French Islands in Polynesia and Micronesia are ceded to Britain.

-The Division of French possessions in Southeast Asia proves contentious between Japan, Britain and Germany. Eventually, they agreed that Japan would receive the French islands in the South China Sea, and the French leases in Hainan and Guangzhouwan. Britain gained most of French Indochina, with Germany gaining a protectorate over Cambodia in the South. The Kingdom of Siam received some minor border changes in their favor in Laos and Cambodia.

-France was to pay reparations to all the powers, in money and resources. France was also to finance the reconstruction of the Suez canal. 

-The French Navy was confiscated and limited to a small coastal fleet. The French Army was limited to 75,000 men. The French were forbidden to develop military aircraft of any kind.

-The Franco-German, and Franco-Flemish Borders were to be demilitarized.

Treaty of Bialystok (Russia):

-Russia was to relinquish and recognise the independence of: Courland, Livonia, Lithuania, Crimea (which would become German puppet states), Armenia (which became a puppet of the Ottomans), Azerbaijan (Which became a British protectorate), Moldavia (which became a principality under Hungarian influence), and Ukraine, Finland, and Georgia (which became independent states, each under some kind of Alliance with the Allied powers).

-Russian Alaska was ceded to Britain (where it was incorporated into Canada).

-Poland annexes Russian territory around Bialystok and Holm.

-Japan gained the Russian lease at Port Arthur, Sakhalin Island, the Kamchatka Peninsula, and some of the westernmost of the Aleutian islands. The Russian sphere of influence in Manchuria also falls under Japanese influence.

-Hungary gained some minor border adjustments in Galicia.

-Britain was ceded control of the Black Sea port of Sevastopol.

-The Ottomans regained territories lost in Kars in the Russo-Turkish war.

-Russia was forced to pay reparations

Treaty of Cologne (Netherlands):

-The Netherlands was to end its personal union with Luxembourg, which was annexed to Germany.

-The Netherlands ceded Limburg and some border territories in Wallonia to Germany.

-The Southern Netherlands were to become the independent, neutral Kingdom of Flanders (Despite containing a significant chunk of Wallonia). This is so that the Channel ports, especially Antwerp, were not controlled by any major power. Britain and Germany signed treaties guaranteeing the independence of Flanders, and granting them free, unrestricted access to Flemish ports.

-Dutch Suriname was ceded to Britain.

-Curacao was ceded to Germany, and the remaining Dutch Caribbean possessions were ceded to Britain.

-In Africa, the Dutch Gold Coast and Zambezia (OTL northern Namibia) were ceded to Britain. Dutch Somalia was partitioned between Germany and Britain.

-The division of Dutch possessions in Asia was just as contentious as the French ones. In the end, the Dutch East Indies were to be split between the three major powers, with the Germans gaining West Papua, and all the islands to the East of Sulawesi. Sulawesi itself and some of the islands around it were ceded to Japan. The remainder, in Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and the hundreds of smaller islands, were ceded to Britain.

-The Dutch were to cede any forts along the German border to Germany, and to demilitarize the Flemish border.

Treaty of Vienna (Italy):

-The Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was to be restored in the south. They signed a treaty of Alliance with the British and Germans.

-At the behest of the Catholic Habsburgs, the Papal States were to receive some of the territory they had lost back, mostly in Umbria. Germany also signed a treaty guaranteeing the independence of the Papal States.

-Germany annexed territories along the border between Tyrol and Italy, in Northwestern Lombardy.

-The border between Italy and Venice was slightly altered in Venice's favor.

-Italian Tunisia, despite protests from the Ottomans, was made a British protectorate.

-Severe restrictions were placed on the Italian military and Navy.

-Italy had to pay reparations to the Allied powers.

Treaty of Zagreb (Yugoslavia):

-The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was to be dissolved. Bosnia was to be annexed to Croatia. 

-Montenegro was restored, as a German puppet state.

-Bulgaria annexed lands in Eastern Serbia along the border. 

-The Hungarians received some minor territories on the south bank of the Danube in Eastern Serbia.

-Decisions made by the Serbian government involving foreign affairs had to be approved by German appointed advisors, essentially making Serbia a dependent state of Germany.

-Military limitations were placed on Serbia

-Reparations were to be paid to the Allies, especially Croatia and Bulgaria.

Treaty of Bucharest (Romania):

-Romania was to cede control of passes in the Carpathian mountains to Hungary.

-Romania was to cede the entirety of Dobruja to Bulgaria, leaving Romania as a landlocked state.

-Romania was to lease the oil wells in Ploesti to Germany and Hungary for 80 years.

-Romania was forbidden from ever uniting with Moldavia.

-Military limitations were placed on Romania.

-Romania had to pay reparations to Hungary and Bulgaria.

Immediate Aftermath of the Great War (1909-1914):

-Tsar Alexander III, facing revolution in the streets of Petrograd, abdicated in favor of his son Grand Duke George Alexandrovich in May of 1910. Tsar

George I will be forced to make concessions, ending Autocratic rule in Russia by creating a constitution and an elected Duma.

-In Italy, King Victor Emmanuel III is ousted in a Republican coup in 1911.

-In France, after the abdication of Napoleon IV with no heir, a loose alliance of competing political movements attempt to form a provisional government. The two main factions are the more moderate, conservative Republicans, and the loose alliance of Communists, Socialists, and Radical Republicans known as the Communards. Though initially only a very vocal minority in the newly formed chamber of deputies, the Communards played an important role in forcing the Emperor to abdicate, and they have powerful street militias that are keeping the peace in the streets of Paris. Conflicts between the Republicans and Communards will define the early days of the provisional government, as they argue over exactly what kind of government France will fall into.

-On January 14, 1910, the Union between Norway and Sweden is officially ended, establishing Norwegian independence.

-The Chinese civil war continues. Seeing a threat in the Boxer elements of the Chinese republicans, Germany and Britain join Japan in assisting the Qing government in 1910. Eventually, all three powers will commit ground troops to the conflict. However, as the Qing gain foreign support, they lose much of the support they had domestically. Prince Chun, head of the regency council for Emperor Puyi, is seen as weak, and as a foreign puppet by many in China.

-The Russian and French possessions in China being traded from one power to another, instead of being returned to China, and the establishment of a Japanese sphere of influence in Manchuria, only strengthens the anti-foreigner message of the Republicans. In addition to falling public opinion, the Qing also lose the loyalty of some local warlords, and several important commanders in the army. Indeed, by 1914, the Chinese Civil War seems to be, as one Chinese newspaper put it "A child and the West against all of China".

-The Confederates continued to suffer in Cuba. By 1912, almost 60,000 Confederate soldiers have been lost, to disease and Guerilla warfare. The oppressed Black citizens admire the Cuban revolutionaries, many of them black, for fighting for their independence. Underground Black political movements emerge, despite them being illegal. Continued reports of atrocities in Cuba shape American public opinion against the Confederates.

-Conflicts arise in France in 1911 when the Republican government orders that the Communards disband their militias. The Communards refuse, and feeling threatened, attempt a coup against the provisional government. While they succeed in taking Paris, most of the remaining departmental councils remain 

loyal to the provisional government and see the Communards as usurpers. Jean Juares, the de-facto leader of the Communards declares the start of a "Third French Revolution" after those in 1789, and 1848. After negotiations fail, the Republicans attempt to retake Paris, but their war-weary and untrustworthy troops are defeated by the Communard militias in the Battle of Paris, June 11-15, 1911. Reluctantly, the republicans appeal to the British troops occupying Northern France. With the assistance of their former enemies, the Republicans manage to retake Paris from the Communards, and on September 3, proclaim the Third French Republic. However, the credibility of the French government is seriously damaged, as they are perceived as weak, and collaborating with enemies of France. More moderate, non-Communard liberals are put off from the new government by its persecution of former Communards, and shutting down of several prominent left wing newspapers. The nosediving French economy, and the heavy burden of reparations, cause many common people, not interested in politics, to turn against the new government. Royalists do not like the republicans for betraying the Emperor, and not installing a monarchy, and by many it is seen as just a continuation of the old regime, just without the splendor and glory that comes with an Empire.

-The Ottoman Empire, despite emerging as victor, still has to deal with enormous debt to its allies, and rising Arab nationalism within its territories.

-In April of 1913, after regaining a somewhat shaky hold over Cuba, the Confederate States dissolve the Cuban local government entirely, essentially making the island a territory of the Confederate States, in all but name. The United States protests this, claiming that it violates the Treaty of London. However, the British are unwilling to intervene or make any statement, as they are still recovering from the Great War, and the Confederates have not explicitly annexed Cuba. Of the other treaty signers, France was on the brink of civil war, and essentially a German puppet state for now, and the Spanish are too weak and far away to do anything, and are in the midst of their own political crisis.

-The Confederate army is placed on high alert, as they believe that the United States is preparing to invade. Alarmed by this, and due to the tensions arising as part of the Cuban question, the President Theodore Roosevelt issues an ultimatum to the CSA on May 2, to demobilise its army, and begin withdrawing forces from Cuba by the end of the month or face war.

-The Confederate military general staff are horrified with this, as all of their previous war plans involved allies, and none of them believed that the CSA could face the US on its own. They convince president John Bankhead, that a preemptive strike, before the United States is fully mobilised, is the best shot at victory.

-With this in mind, after a brief redeployment of mobilised troops, CSA troops launch a surprise invasion from into Maryland, Kentucky, and West Virginia, on May 19, with a formal declaration of war taking several hours to arrive in Philadelphia. 

Cuban War (1914-1916):

-The Confederate surprise attack outrages the American public, and the recruiting stations are quickly overwhelmed with volunteers.

-In accordance with their Alliance, and much to the disappointment of the Confederate leadership, Mexico declares war on the CSA. Mexican troops quickly move to capture their lost territories, and also advance into southern Arizona, in an attempt to cut the Confederate transcontinental rail line.

-The Confederate advance into Maryland is stopped, but the Confederates succeed in putting Washington DC under siege. They are prevented from taking the city by a local garrison, and fortifications. The fighting around the historic American capital will eventually lead to the Washington monument being destroyed, and the old Capital Building and White House being damaged.

-At the onset of the war, the US Atlantic fleet was deployed to blockade the Confederate coast, and especially, cut ties with Cuba. They are engaged by the Confederate fleet in the battle of the Florida Keys on June 15, in which the Confederates are decisively beaten. This will be the final battle between pre-dreadnought warships in history. Neither side has any of the new Dreadnought type of ships in commission, though the Americans were building a class of them, and the Confederates had two on order with Britain.

-After their defeat, the Confederate Navy is made useless, and the US cuts off nearly all naval trade to the Confederates, imposing a blockade, and trapping four divisions of some of the most experienced Confederate soldiers on Cuba.

-While the northern Virginia campaign devolves into a bloody stalemate, the US, taking advantage of their numerical superiority over the Confederates, launches an invasion of Tennessee. Unlike in Virginia, in the West, the US is able to overwhelm local CSA forces and make significant gains.

-After their successful campaigns in reclaiming most of their lost territories (except for parts of the Baja peninsula), and southern Arizona, the Mexicans turn towards pushing into Texas. However, their advances are hampered by long supply lines, and heavy resistance from local Texans.

-American naval forces conduct landings in the Florida Keys in August. They face no real resistance from local forces.

-The last surviving members of the Cuban revolutionary movement launch a reinvigorated new rebellion. An uprising in a Confederate prison camp triggers the revolution, which spreads once more. The beleaguered Confederate forces, cut off from resupply, are overwhelmed by the revolutionaries, and by the end of 1914, Cuban forces control more than 50% of the island. News of the success is suppressed by the Confederate government, but US propaganda leaflets are spread, some which reach the discontented Black populations in the South.

-American forces push south into Arkansas, starting in December of 1914, in support of a campaign to take control of the Mississippi. US river monitors push along the river ahead of the Army, establishing American control along most of the length of the river.

-By the end of 1914, American soldiers have captured Knoxville, and hold substantial territory throughout Eastern and Northern Tennessee.

-As part of the campaign to establish control of the Mississippi, in March of 1915, the US lands troops in Southern Louisiana. Like in their first (unsuccessful) attempt to take the city in the war of Southern Secession 50 years earlier, the Americans would have to fight through the considerable Confederate fortifications. Here were the most modern and well equipped forts in all of the South. Though the American naval dominance allows for an uncontested approach, fortifications and artillery fire prevent any advance up the river. Naval bombardment damages the fortifications, but is unable to make any kind of safe passage possible. In a rushed, and later criticized decision, American forces land farther down the river than planned, in an attempt to neutralise the forts. The Confederates inflict ghastly losses on the Americans. The Lower Mississippi Delta campaign, or the battle of Plaquemines, would prove to be one of the costliest campaigns of the war. Individual fortifications would take weeks to capture, at the cost of thousands of lives a piece. The casualties are exaggerated by the wet swampy terrain making digging fortifications much more difficult.

-American forces launch campaigns in the West into Texas and Oklahoma in April of 1915. They succeed, but the smaller amount of troops dedicated to this venture, the vast distances involved, and resistance from local Indians and Confederates makes actually controlling this territory somewhat difficult. 

-During their advancement into Arkansas, the American soldiers run into George Holloway (Fictional), an African American revolutionary, looking for American support for Black resistance movements throughout the South. Hoping to undermine the Confederate regime, he is given some weapons, and some promises, and sent back South. American propaganda had already used Confederate abuses of Blacks as a demonising tactic against them, but soon after, the US government begins to clandestinely support black resistance movements, and declares its war to be one waged “for the equality of men”. President Roosevelt meets with Black leaders such William Monroe Trotter, and W.E.B. DuBois, to discuss Black involvement in the war. The meeting is controversial, and Trotter and DuBois, while happy that their cause is being discussed, feel that they are being used simply as pawns in a war. Nevertheless, Black factory workers in the South begin demanding higher wages, and equal treatment, and engaging in mass walkouts, leaving their place of work, which has devastating effects on the already strained Confederate industry.

-With seemingly no good news from any front, the Confederate government begins to suppress newspapers from reporting on the war, and force them to publish propaganda. Prominent anti-war activists are arrested, and increasingly harsh anti-sedition acts are passed through the Senate.

-The popular anti-war governor of Texas Joseph Sayers, begins to sign local armistices with Mexican and American soldiers, in June of 1915. The Confederate government, in response, suspends Texas senators, and declares martial law in Texas, demanding Governor Sayers step down. He refuses, until threatened with Confederate troops storming Austin.

-Due to so many veteran soldiers being put out of action due to horrific casualties, the conscription laws in the CSA are expanded, which proves unpopular. The whole war is becoming unpopular, especially in the areas less affected by it.

-The Confederate government, alarmed by Black protests, and strained by manpower shortages, in March of 1915, begins to open recruitment to Blacks, making some vague promises of civil rights upon wars’ end. This proves unpopular among many whites.

-By August of 1915, the US forces in the Mississippi Delta have captured most of the fortifications, and are threatening the actual city of New Orleans. The city surrenders to the Americans without too much of a fight on September 2.

-Black separatists connected to George Holloway’s New Afrika movement rise up in Mississippi, in September of 1915, taking control of a Confederate armory, and storming Jackson. Similar uprisings occur among the Black population across the South, all mostly disconnected.

-Finally, with mass protests, revolutionaries in the streets, and the war support of the Nation dropping to almost no one, Confederate President Bankhead asks for an armistice with the US, on October 13, 1915.

Treaty of Baltimore (1916):

-The United States directly annexes the Confederate States of Arkansas, Sequoyah, and Arizona.

-Parts of Northern Virginia are annexed to West Virginia (to prevent DC from directly bordering the CSA), the Eastern Peninsula of Virginia is annexed to Maryland. Parts of Western Virginia are annexed to Kentucky. The US also occupies the Florida Keys.

-The city of New Orleans is declared a “Free City” under US protection. The US is also granted free access to the Mississippi River. All Confederate fortifications along the river must be handed over to the US, and the banks of the Mississippi are declared a demilitarized zone.

-The lost Mexican territories of the Baja California peninsula, and the Sonora panhandle are returned to Mexico. In Texas, the areas West of the Pecos river, and South of the Nueces river, areas with a high Latino population, are ceded to Mexico.

-The division of Arizona between the US and Mexico proves contentious. Though the territory was formerly American, and the US government considers all Confederate territories to be rightfully theirs, the area was only American for little over a decade. Mexico has also occupied around half of the territory, and wishes to control the remnants of the Confederate railway. In the end, an agreement is reached between Mexico and the US, setting the border to that back before the 1853 Gadsden purchase, with the rest of Arizona going to the US.

-The Confederate States are forced to recognise the independence of Cuba.

-The CSA is required to pay war indemnities to the US and Cuba, and to surrender the output of the Coal mines in Central Alabama to the US. The US and Mexico were also to be allowed to occupy the Texas oil fields of Electra, and Piedras Pintas, respectively, and to receive the output of those sites.

Aftermath in the Confederate States, Confederate Revolutions (1916-1919):

-Declaring a national emergency, President Bankhead suspends the elections of 1915, and, under pressure, congress narrowly votes to allow him to remain president until the end of the crisis.

-Mass unrest continues within the Confederate states. Black rebels continue to seize control of factories, government buildings, and armories across the South, and mass clashes between Confederate troops and the Black revolutionaries occur across the South. The uprising are not of a cohesive movement, each with differing goals and strategies.

-Black soldiers returning home are told that, due to the Black uprisings across the country, they will not be receiving their promised rights now. In response, many of the now well trained soldiers join those very uprisings.

-Across Texas, outrage erupts at the continued presence of enemy soldiers on their land after the war’s end. Martial law continues in the state, until, on May 15, 1916, Governor Joseph Sayers, accompanied by over 2,000 Texas Rangers, marches back into Austin, and orders the Confederate Army to vacate the city. The commander of the garrison, lieutenant Daniel Greely (Fictional) refuses, and fighting breaks out on May 17. The Texas Rangers win the battle of Austin, capturing lieutenant Greely, and on May 22, governor Sayers declares his intent to secede from the Confederate States. In a rousing 15 minute radio address, he refers to the Confederate Government as a “tyrannical dictatorship”, and calls president Bankhead “the new King George”. The Confederate flag is lowered at the Texan capital.

-President Bankhead orders the Army to occupy Texas, but there is no organised force available, that is not already fighting the Black revolutionaries. Governor Sayers, now calling himself President of the Texas Republic, takes advantage of this delay to begin creating a national army. 

-The ranks of the Texas Rangers swell with volunteers, as many citizens who fought against the Mexican occupiers, as well as normal, patriotic Texans flock to join.

-In response to the Texans secession, the people of South Florida, who had always felt themselves to be seperate from the Confederacy, began to wonder if they too should secede. Due to nicer conditions, an economic boom, and a much more diverse community, Blacks in the south of Florida were not persecuted to the same level as elsewhere in the Confederacy, and Florida had some of the most lax race laws of any state. The population of Florida with a large percentage of Blacks, Hispanics, and an influx of immigrants, especially Italians and French made the area unique in the Confederacy.

-After the fall of Tallahassee to Black revolutionaries in July of 1916, the Governor of Florida, and most of the state house fled to Virginia by sea. Outraged by their abandonment by their leadership, the mayors of Miami, Orlando, Fort Lauderdale, St Petersburg, and several other cities in the South met in Miami to discuss leadership of the state. After a few days of negotiations, the council voted to declare a “Provisional government of Florida” with its capital at Miami. The mayor of Miami, Henry Derrickson (Fictional) was made the “Provisional Governor” of Florida.

-However, rather than commending their handling of the crisis, the central Confederate government, under pressure from the “Florida Government in Exile” declared the Provisional Government illegal, and declared martial law in Florida. In response, following the example of Texas, Governor Derrickson announced on August 5, Florida’s secession from the Confederacy.

-In northern South Carolina, in the mill town of Greenville, the textile Unions are visited by United States born prominent workers advocate and socialist Dr Charles Macune. Macune, who had been conducting a speaking tour of the Confederacy when the war broke out, and found himself unable to leave, decided to stay in the south, and speak to Union workers, hoping to foster a socialist presence in whatever new form the Confederacy had after this whole mess. However, after speaking to the Union workers after a mill league baseball game on July 7th, Macune is arrested by local authorities, who didn’t want him sparking revolution. The mill workers, incensed by the blatant suppression, riot outside the police station, demanding his release. The police open fire on the crowd after they begin throwing bricks through the windows of the station. In the firefight, a prominent local baseball player, Joe Jackson is killed.

-After the police open fire, the Union workers, several of them armed, fight back, and storm the police station. Macune is captured back, and finds himself as the unwilling head of a violent socialist uprising. Union workers across the city, hearing of the riot, take control of their mills, and on July 14, storm city hall. They declare a new socialist government, calling it the “Palmetto Commune”, invoking the symbolism of their state. The commune quickly forms militias, and is joined by participants across the county. Due to being somewhat out of the way, the Confederate government will largely ignore the Palmetto Commune for most of the war, which allows them to expand across all of Greenville and Spartanburg counties, and taking control of several of the important cities in the SC upstate.

-On September 13 of 1916, from the captured city of Jackson, George Holloway announces, in a radio broadcast from his new capital, the foundation of “the Republic of New Afrika”. He proclaims it “a free republic for all negro men, yearning to breathe free”, and makes territorial claims extending from Louisiana, all the way to South Carolina. He proclaims that though the land should be settled by black men, that the local white inhabitants would not be killed, but merely “peacefully resettled”. This is in response to some Black militias massacring Whites in captured towns. He calls upon the Black race to follow the example of the Cubans and Haitians, and free themselves. Most Black militias pledge allegiance to Holloway’s new republic.

-In the wake of the nation breaking apart, and the government's failures in response to crisis, a group of military leaders led by General John “Blackjack” Pershing, march on the Executive Mansion in Richmond, and pretty much force President Bankhead to resign on November 4. Though Vice-President Jeff Davis* is officially sworn in as President the next day, real power is vested in the “Provisional Security Council of the Confederate States”, headed by Pershing.

-The strategy employed by Pershing for the remainder of the conflict is referred to as the “Carrots and Sticks” policy. The policy involves powerful strikes at important rebel held areas, like railroad junctions and cities, but also offering negotiations with rebel leaders, in an attempt to lower the amount of enemies he had to face. The first major example of this was the Florida campaign of Spring 1917. After much of the southern half of Florida was taken by Derrickson and his new Republic, Confederate forces launch a series of lightning strikes into the peninsula. They capture multiple cities along the coast, however, while on the outskirts of Orlando, the Confederate government offers to the Floridians that surrendering would mean amnesty, and possible greater autonomy at wars end. To most everyone’s surprise, Derrickson holds a referendum among the people of South Florida in August of 1917. After the results came back 56% in favor of an armistice, governor Derrickson orders all troops to stand down, and allow the Confederates to reoccupy the State. In exchange for the peaceful and respectful end to the conflict, General Pershing writes a letter to Derrickson, thanking him personally, and promising that he would not be persecuted for his role in the rebellion.

-Critics of the Carrot and Stick policy note that after the Floridian surrender, several unsuccessful rebellions occurred across the CSA, with local leaders hoping to get the same deal as those in Florida. All the rebellions were quickly put down though, with the majority of them (like those in East Tennessee, and Western Virginia) dealt with by the Confederate government). However, the self declared “Republic of Lower Alabama” was overrun by New Afrikan soldiers, and the “Cajun Republic” in Southern Louisiana was crushed by the United States, after it spread to the free city of New Orleans. In response to these uprisings, General Pershing announces that only rebellions before the Florida surrender would be treated in that way, and any new rebels would all be summarily shot.

-Due to it being far to the West, and also relatively isolated from most of the Black rebellions, the Texans were not as involved in the Civil war in early 1917 as other parts of the CSA. The government offensive against Texas never materialised, and the Texas rangers continued to grow, becoming a formidable, if ragtag army. The US, happy to weaken their enemy further, and after receiving assurances that the Oil shipments wouldn’t stop, provided the Texans with modern rifles, artillery, and ammunition.

-Many of the Black revolts up north were crushed throughout 1917. The New Afrika movement is mostly confined to the Deep South, especially the gulf coast states, by the close of the year.

-Members of the Palmetto Commune form their largest army yet, in December 1917, and push to the south, along the railroads, towards Columbia. They seek to push their revolution to all corners of their state, and potentially beyond. A ragtag group of local militias, working in concert with CSA and state guard troops, defeat the Communists at the battle of Irmo in February of 1918. After this, the territory controlled by the Communists will continue to shrink for the rest of the civil war. The Palmetto Commune will officially end after Greenville is retaken in the South Carolina campaign in October of 1918.

-The battles with New Afrikan militias continue throughout the rest of 1918, with minor progress made on the part of the CSA.

-In April of 1918, the Confederate army launches an offensive against the Texans, hoping to capture Dallas. However, in a series of battles, the Texas Rangers score multiple victories, and manage to force the CS troops out of Texas. By the end of the summer, Pershing has abandoned the idea of reconquering Texas, instead trying to impose a land and sea blockade. However, the Texans find a new trade partner to the north in the United States. Eager to keep their enemy busy, the US continues to supply the Texans with weapons, resources, and food.

-Finally, after several months of fruitless fighting, and under intense US pressure, the CSA recognizes the independence of the Republic of Texas on November 18, 1918.

-In January of 1919, Pershing broadcasts a message to the Black rebels. He announces that if they surrender their weapons and go home, that a general amnesty for common soldiers would go into effect, and that “Black Homelands” would be created at war’s end. Many Black rebels take up the offer (with the exception of the forces in Mississippi under Holloway). By the end of March, the last Black strongholds have either surrendered, or been taken back, except for a small territory around Jackson, Mississippi.

-The CSA launches operation Stonewall on April 2, 1919, and after several weeks of street fighting, retakes Jackson. George Holloway is killed in the fighting, along with more than 20,000 Blacks.

*Senator and Governor of Arkansas in OTL, hey, the US had two Roosevelts and two John Adams, why not confuse history students more?

Aftermath of the Civil War:

-The state of Florida is divided into two States, Tallahassee in the north, and Florida in the South. Florida is placed under military control temporarily.

-Three Black Homelands are created, and the majority of the Black population in the CSA is relocated to them. Over 100,000 will die during the forced relocations. The Homelands are Yazoo (in Northwest Mississippi), Seminole (In Southwest Georgia), and Selma (In Central Alabama).

-These Homelands are territories that are technically still a part of the states they reside in but are under Federal jurisdiction. 

-State guards are abolished.

-Various minor changes are made to the Confederate political system, that attempt to reign in state powers, and strengthen the central government. In a somewhat ironic twist, considering that one of the cited reasons for secession was the federal government's imposition on the rights of Southern States, much of the new Confederate government is based on the US one.

-After the first official elections are held in 1920, Pershing is officially elected President.

-In 1922, the seat of the Confederate government is moved from Richmond to Montgomery, though Richmond remains the de jure capital.

Divided World 1914-1940s:

-The Chinese Civil war continues through 1916, with the Republicans gaining more and more support from the Chinese people, and the Qing relying more and more on foreign support and troops. By the end of 1917, the Republicans control most of the interior of China, while the Qing government is left to the coasts, though still controlling many major cities.  In an effort to dampen the Westerner’s support for the Qing, in 1917, the prominent Boxer, and anti-foreign general Cao Futian is assassinated by Kuomintang members. The Republicans also try to tone down the seizing of Western possessions in their controlled territory, and the massacres of captured Europeans. In 1918, in a secret meeting between prominent Republican Sun-Yat Sen, and the British government, Sun proposes to the British a deal. The Republicans would respect the Hong Kong and other British concessions along the Chinese coast, and to recognise the independence of Tibet, which had fallen into the British sphere of influence, in exchange for the British ceasing their support for the Qing. The British, seeing the war as a losing battle, agree, and formally begin withdrawing their troops and advisors in June of 1918. When news of the secret agreement leaks, it outrages the Germans and Japanese, still supporting the Qing, who see it as a betrayal. Along with the growing naval rivalries between the nations, and a general British dislike of the anti-democratic inclinations of the Germans and Japanese, this drives a wedge between the former allies.

-Eventually, the Republicans are victorious in the Chinese Civil war, by the end of 1921. Only Manchuria remains under the control of the Qing. The Japanese declare an independent Qing Kingdom in Manchuria, under their protection of course. The Qing will continue to rule Manchuria, under increasing stronger Japanese influence, claiming to be the legitimate government of all of China. Xinjiang falls back into Chinese control, but Tibet, Manchuria, and Mongolia all remain independent, all under some form of foreign protection.

-The 1925 Act of Westminster grants the colonies of Canada, South Africa, Transvaal, New Zealand, Australia, and Westralia, the semi-independent status of Dominion.

-In the elections of 1925, in the Republic of Italy, the revanchist, nationalist, and populist National Union (Unione Nationale) party comes to power, under their leader Michele Bianchi.

-A Cold War develops between the German-Japanese aligned block, and the United Kingdom, throughout the 20s and 30s.

-Relations improve between the US and the United Kingdom over this period, partly due to the CSA drawing closer to Germany and Japan.

-Several Irish Rebellions are put down throughout the late 20s. Parliament eventually agrees to give Ireland Dominion status.

-Due to economic instability in Spain, and declining public opinion of the monarchy ever since the war with the Confederates and Japanese, a coup by the Carlists, backed by the military, in March of 1924 overthrows the king and proclaims the 34 year old prince Xavier as the new King of Spain, Javier I. He implements more conservative policies, promotes Spanish nationalism, and in October of 1924, proclaims himself "Emperor of Spain".

-Tsar George I dies in 1928, and is succeeded by his son, 27 year old Alexander IV. The young new Tsar is more liberal than his father or grandfather, and, to prevent any more riots, delegates additional power to the Duma. He also focuses on modernising and industrializing Russia further, and building up a modern army to fight Germany.

-Though the Kingdom of Siam allied with the British and Germans in the Great War, it quickly gets caught up in the power struggle between the two blocks. In 1926, citing bandits raiding their colonial holdings, the British force the Siamese to cede several border territories, which are annexed into Malaya, Burma, and Indochina. When civil war erupts in Siam in 1930, between supporters of the King, and Republicans inspired by the Chinese, the British take further advantage of this and attempt to annex even more territories. However, this nearly leads to war with Germany, who fear the British gaining even more influence in the region. In the end, the two powers sign the treaty of Singapore in 1931 which allows Germany to expand their colony in Cambodia, in exchange for the recognition of British colonial expansions and guarantees of no further border changes in Siam.

-The London Stock Market crashes on March 6, 1933, which in turn leads to the Great Depression.

-By 1931, the Emirate of Jabal Shammar, under the House of Rashid, with the support of the Ottoman Empire, has unified much of Arabia under their control. After their conquests of the Saudis in Nejd, the Emir of Jabal Shammar, Saud bin Abdulaziz Al-Rashid, rechristens his Kingdom as “The Emirate of Rashid Arabia”. Though he is nominally a vassal of the Ottomans, the Ottomans have a very tough time enforcing their will in the harsh deserts of Arabia.

-In the 1936 French Elections, the National Republicans, a militant nationalist, yet socially and economically liberal party, similar to the Italian Unione Nationale, comes to power in the French Republic. They are led by Hubert Largardelle (OTL French Fascist and Syndicalists Activist). The new government is fiercely anti-German, and the British seek to take advantage of this by trying to alleviate tensions with France, seeking an ally.

-On March 3, 1937, a plebiscite is held in the British puppet state of Brittany, which results in the state rejoining the French Republic.

-In the Two Sicilies Civil War of 1936-1938, Italian backed republican and nationalist rebels rise up against the Bourbon monarchy. France and Italy back the rebels, Germany backs the Two Sicilies government. The rebels declare the Republic of Sicily and the Republic of Southern Italy.

-By early 1938, the Sicilians have managed to completely take control of the Island. The mainland rebels manage to defeat the Bourbon loyalists by the end of 1938. The Sicilians hold a referendum to join Italy, which succeeds. The government of Southern Italy plans to hold a similar one, but Germany threatens war against Italy if they annex the Southern Republic. Thus, the Republic of Southern Italy remains independent, but in many ways a client state of Italy. 

-Deprived of their main military backer, the Papal State is forced to align more with Italy to preserve their independence. The Pope had slowly been giving up more and more of his Temporal powers over the years. In 1903, a formal Constitution is drafted, creating a bicameral legislature. The Council of Cardinal advisors serve as the upper house, with an elected "Assembly of Rome" serving as the lower house. After the fall of the Two Sicilies, the Papal States are basically forced by Italy to reduce the power of the Cardinals, and make the Pope a figurehead, with the pro-Italian Assembly becoming the real governing power.

-In 1939, in the Milan agreement, Germany agrees to allow France and Italy to annex some French and Italian regions of Switzerland, respectively. The French portion contains the important city of Geneva. Switzerland is not consulted and feels betrayed by the whole thing, descending further into isolation and militarisation.

-Though officially neutral, Flanders falls into the German sphere of influence due to the threat from France.

Tensions in the South (1925-1940)

-The civil war led to the economy of the CSA falling completely apart. This was not helped by the forced relocations of the Black population, which led to poor whites being forced into the menial, low paying sharecropping and industrial jobs that the former slaves once occupied.

-Workers demanding fairer pay, hours, and treatment began to rally behind the cause of socialism, inspired by the story of the Palmetto Commune. The Socialist Party, previously a fringe group begins rapidly growing in popularity throughout the 1920s and 30s. It soon outstrips the Whig Party to become the second most popular party in the CSA, after the Constitutional Party. By 1938, socialist candidates have secured majorities in several state legislatures, and have a strong minority in many others, and in the Confederate congress. 

-In the Black Homelands, the memory of revolution is still fresh, and many former revolutionaries seek to overthrow the CSA completely, making their Homelands actually independent. Still others wish to return to their former homes, to grow the Homelands, or to link up with the other Homelands to create one large Black state.

-Many former revolutionaries, black and white, resent the “peaceful” end to the war, and believe that their leaders abandoned them, just as they were reaching the cusp of their goals.

-In the 1938 Confederate Presidential election, the Socialist candidate, Louisiana Senator Huey Long, wins the presidency. He picks Virginia Governor James Price as his VP.

-President Long implements radical new land redistribution and welfare policies. This upsets much of the southern aristocracy, but makes him very popular amongst the poor. 

-President Long also agrees to grant the Black homelands a small amount of self rule, allowing them to elect a small council of advocates. However the main authority in the homelands still remains the Federally appointed governor. This still makes him unpopular with some, and the Constitutional Party claim that Long is going to grant civil rights to blacks and admit the Homelands as states.

-Huey Long is assassinated on November 13, 1943 by a far right radical angry with the racial policies. Vice President Price assumes the Presidency.

Second Great War (1941-1946) War Goals of Each Participant


German Empire:

-Protect their dominant position in Europe and weaken the British as a rival.

-Seize colonies from the British, including Madagascar, Somaliland, Indochina, South Papua, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Nigeria, Sevastopol, Malta, and others.

-Support colonial rebels across the British Empire, especially in Ethiopia, Somalia, and India.

-Partition of former Dutch East Indies with Japan.

-Seizing Chinese trading ports and supporting the Japanese in their efforts to restore the Qing in China.

-Breakup of the Kingdom of Italy into smaller Kingdoms, restoration of the Bourbons in the South.

-Taking land along the French border, annexing French land to Flanders, including the British Channel Ports.

-Reducing France to a vassal state, and preventing them from ever posing a threat ever again.

-Weaken the Russians by imposing economic and military sanctions.

-Creation of Belarus, Cossack Republics, North Caucasus State, and bringing British influenced Azerbaijan into the German sphere.

-Expansion of Ukraine, Livonia and Georgia at Russia’s expense.



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